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Visual Sensation

AP Psychology 2.1
by

calvin leung

on 24 October 2012

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Transcript of Visual Sensation

Visual Sensation Calvin Leung, Peter Le,
Amanda Duong, Calvin
Dang, Alvin Zhen, Devin
Dyquisto, Ben Freeman Basic Components Review! Real World Applications Association Processing Vocabulary Rod- Allows people to see in low-light black & white

Cone- Allows people to see color

Ganglion Cells- Forms images from visual information. They are the output cells of the retina. Sends info to the brain. V1 -> secondary visual cortex (V2) -> 2 major cortical systems for processing
1. Ventral pathway
Extends to temporal lobe
Involved in recognizing objects
2. Dorsal pathway
Projects to pariatal lobe
Essential for locating objects Two things you learned about acquisition?
Transduction?
Association?
Describe the difference between the 2 theories Acquisition- receiving the physical/ energy from the outside world.

EX: light energy,chemical energy, sound waves, pressure, heat Acquisition Transduction Transduction-interpreting images seen from the eye to the brain. Targets Pupil
Cornea
Lens
Retina
Rods
Cones
Accommodation
Lateral inhibition
Ganglion cells
Blind spot Theories Young-Helmholtz
(Trichromatic)
Opponent Process Primary and Association processing What comprises color? Theories What comprises color? Human Eyeball Sclera- Protects eyeball & reflects light into retina Pupil- Expanding & Contracting opening in iris Lens- Refracts light into retina with cornea Cornea- Refracts light into retina with lens Retina- Innermost part of eyeball that receives refracted images Eye- Perceives light images Iris- Colored muscular diaphragm that controls pupil What happens when one pair of colors is activated? What is this called? Other Topics Accommodation- is when the lens changes its curvature to focus on distance

Lateral inhibition- Is the competition of light receptors?

Blind spot-When there are no receptor cells where the optic nerve leaves the eye. Opponent Process Theory Stroop Effect Final Assessment 1. What compromises color?

2. What did Young and Helmholtz discover about color?

3. What happens when one pair of colors are activated? What is this called?

4. What are ganglion cells?

5. What lobe process the visual image? What did Young and Helmholtz discover about color? Occipital lobe: primary visual cortex (V1)
Eye transmits info by the optic nerve
Nerve relays onto the cells of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)
Processes info on static/ moving objects, patterns Young Helmholtz/ Trichromatic
theory
Cones activated by light waves of: blue, red, green
See all colors by mixing 3 Opponent Process Theory
Cells in thalamus responds to pairs of receptor sets
red/green, blue/yellow, black/ white,
One color activated, others turn off
Example: color-blindness Additive Subtractive Primary Association Retina plays a huge role in transduction.
Retina contains Rods and Cones
Rods are used during the night time.
Cones are used during daylight.
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