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introduction to realism, regionalism, and naturalism
Transcript of introduction to realism, regionalism, and naturalism
Regionalism (1880s to turn of the century): Focus on bringing local dialects and dress to literature
Regionalism (20th century): Focus on
how setting influences people's lives
Ex: works of Mark Twain
Ex: Works of John Steinbeck,
Kate Chopin, and William Faulkner
Born in Salinas, CA in 1902
Attended Stanford University but never graduated
Moved to New York City in 1925 but returned to California when he didn't make it big
Published "The Grapes of Wrath" in 1939, which is considered his greatest work
Won a Nobel Peace Prize for literature in 1962
Died in 1968
Regionalism: lifestyles of migrant workers and their living conditions
Life in big cities
Dust Bowl famines
The Civil War and westward expansion created numerous changes in society and politics.
allowed authors to comment on the new concerns of the period such as the ongoing struggle of the working class as well as the societal elevation of the middle class (distribution of wealth). Other items which impacted this style included changes in population, technology, and women's rights.
, also known as
, refers to fiction and poetry that focuses on specific features - including tradition, topography, characters, dialects, customs, history, and landscape- of a particular region.
Improvements in farming equipment and expansion of railroads made Americans more willing to move west to the Great Plains and beyond.
Meanwhile, new inventions such as the electric lightbulb and the telephone created new jobs,so thousands of Americans and new immigrants moved to urban areas in search of jobs and the manufacturing industry soared.
The fight for women's rights had slowed down during the Civil War while many women's rights reformers focused on ending slavery. After the war, these reformers began working again toward securing women's rights to own property and to vote.
These concerns mocked the romantic idealism of the previous era; furthermore, these changes gave rise to problems that forced writers to assess and reflect the realities of the time.
Realism was a literary movement whose authors described life as they saw it, instead of how they imagined or wanted it to be.
The majority of Americans; however, still held to the AMERICAN DREAM- the belief that hard work, honesty, and reverence would insure economic success, national harmony, and individual well-being.
As individuals dealt with the realities of life, their curiosity to learn about other sections of the country increased.
Regionalism analyzes the attitudes the characters have toward one another and their community as a whole.
The narrator is extremely important in regionalist fiction because he or she serves as a translator, making the region understandable for the reader.
Dealt with the plight of women and their role in society
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist.
Twain grew up in Hannibal, Missouri, which would later provide the setting for Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer. He apprenticed with a printer. He also worked as a typesetter and contributed articles to his older brother Orion's newspaper. After toiling as a printer in various cities, he became a master riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River, before heading west to join Orion. He was a failure at gold mining, so he next turned to journalism.
He achieved great success as a writer and public speaker. His wit and satire earned praise from critics and peers, and he was a friend to presidents, artists, industrialists, and European royalty.
He lacked financial acumen, and, though he made a great deal of money from his writings and lectures, he squandered it on various ventures, in particular the Paige Compositor, and was forced to declare bankruptcy.
Twain was born during a visit by Halley's Comet, and he predicted that he would "go out with it" as well. He died the day following the comet's subsequent return. He was lauded as the "greatest American humorist of his age," and William Faulkner called Twain "the father of American literature."
Kate Chopin, born Katherine O'Flaherty (February 8, 1850 – August 22, 1904), was an American author of short stories and novels. She is now considered by some to have been a forerunner of feminist authors of the 20th century.
From 1892 to 1895, she wrote short stories for both children and adults which were published in such magazines as Atlantic Monthly, Vogue, The Century Magazine, and The Youth's Companion. The people in her stories are usually inhabitants of Louisiana. Many of her works are set in Natchitoches in north central Louisiana.
Within a decade of her death, Chopin was widely recognized as one of the leading writers of her time. In 1915, Fred Lewis Pattee wrote, "some of [Chopin's] work is equal to the best that has been produced in France or even in America. [She displayed] what may be described as a native aptitude for narration amounting almost to genius."
He glorifies the region he writes about
was a more extreme movement which grew out of Realism. Naturalist authors, influenced by scientists such as Charles Darwin, believed that people had little control over their own lives. They were convinced that heredity and the environment shaped people's destinies.
Like Realists, Naturalists wrote about ordinary people, but they often focused on the working class and the poor.
Born in Albany, MS in 1897
Raised in Oxford, MS
Nicknamed "Count No'Count"
Served in World War I
Started writing in New Orleans, LA
Most successful writing explored his fictional world of Yoknapatawpha County (based on where he lived in northern MS)
Won a Nobel Peace prize for
literature in 1949
Died in 1962
Regionalism: decay of the Old South and the effects on Southern people
Francis Bret Harte (August 25, 1836 – May 6, 1902) was an American author and poet, best remembered for his accounts of pioneering life in California.
He was born in Albany, New York, on August 25, 1836. He was named Francis Brett Hart after his great-grandfather Francis Brett. When he was young his father changed the spelling of the family name from Hart to Harte. Later, Francis preferred to be known by his middle name, but he spelled it with only one "t", becoming Bret Harte.
An avid reader as a boy, Harte published his first work at age 11, a satirical poem titled "Autumn Musings," now lost. His formal schooling ended when he was 13 in 1849. He moved to California in 1853, later working there in a number of capacities, including miner, teacher, messenger, and journalist. He spent part of his life in the northern California coastal town of Union (now known as Arcata), a settlement on Humboldt Bay that was established as a provisioning center for mining camps in the interior.
Harte married Anna Griswold on August 11, 1862, in San Rafael, California. From the start, the marriage was rocky. Some suggested she was handicapped by extreme jealousy while an early biographer of Harte, Henry C. Merwin, privately concluded that she was "almost impossible to live with".
Bret Harte in 1868 ]His first literary efforts, including poetry and prose, appeared in The Californian, an early literary journal edited by Charles Henry Webb. In 1868 he became editor of The Overland Monthly, another new literary magazine, but this one more in tune with the pioneering spirit of excitement in California. His story, "The Luck of Roaring Camp", appeared in the magazine's second issue, propelling Harte to nationwide fame.
When word of Charles Dickens's death reached Bret Harte in July 1870, he immediately sent a dispatch across the bay to San Francisco to hold back the forthcoming publication of his Overland Monthly for twenty-four hours, so that he could compose the poetic tribute, "Dickens in Camp". This work is considered by many of Harte's admirers as his verse masterpiece, for its evident sincerity, the depth of feeling it displays, and the unusual quality of its poetic expression.
Determined to pursue his literary career, in 1871 he and his family traveled back East, to New York and eventually to Boston, where he contracted with the publisher of The Atlantic Monthly for an annual salary of $10,000, "an unprecedented sum at the time." His popularity waned, however, and by the end of 1872 he was without a publishing contract and increasingly desperate. He spent the next few years struggling to publish new work (or republish old), delivering lectures about the gold rush, and even selling an advertising jingle to a soap company.
In 1878 Harte was appointed to the position of United States Consul in the town of Krefeld, Germany and then to Glasgow in 1880. In 1885 he settled in London. During the twenty-four years he spent in Europe, he never abandoned writing, and maintained a prodigious output of stories that retained the freshness of his earlier work. He died in Camberley England in 1902 of throat cancer and is buried at Frimley.
His wife, by then known as Anna Bret Harte, died on August 2, 1920. Despite being married for nearly forty years, the couple lived together for only sixteen of those years
Realism carried to an extreme =
Along with the presence of Black spirituals (lullabies, laments, war songs, work songs, expressions of faith, or funeral dirges); wartime diaries, letters, journals, and speeches; legend and tales of the frontier and the Southwest; or literature of discontent; works relating to the realities of life, the uniqueness of regions, and the argument of heredity vs environment comprised much of the literature of this period.