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Transcript of U.A.E HISTORY
MADE BY : MARIA CASSANDRA L.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a country on the Arabian Peninsula located on the southeastern coast of the Persian Gulf and the northwestern coast of the Gulf of Oman. The UAE consists of seven 'emirates' and was founded on 2 December 1971 as a federation. Six of the seven sheikhdoms (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al Quwain and Fujairah) combined on that date. The seventh, Ras Al Khaimah, joined the federation on 10 February 1972
The Seven Emirates
The pearl diving “Gahus” journey started with building the vessel, repairing it and getting the crew, which consisted of the captain “Nakhuda”, his assistant “Mijadimi”, a singer “Nahham”, the divers “Ghwas”, the puller “Saib” and the trainee and the cook “Jallas”. Each vessel, ranging from “Al-Banoosh” to “Jalboot” carried 15 – 18 crew member. Huge fleets of pearling vessels would set out to the oyster banks each season. The pearl fishing season was from April to September, and the crew survived on fishing, rice, dates and coffee, during the trip.
Pearl divers worked from sunrise to sunset, wearing only a nose clip, leather finger protectors, a stone weight and occasionally a cotton suit to protect them from jellyfish. They would dive for 90 seconds, around 40 meters deep, and they would descend about 30 times in one day, and collect about 12 shells in each dive. Once back on the vessel they begin to open the oysters with the “Meflaga”, a curved knife specially designed to open and search for the pearl. If a pearl were found it was given to the captain, who would keep it and negotiate with the merchant, waiting at the banks on dhows, and the diver would get a small share.
A Pearl Divers’ Life
Pearl trading was a weighing pearlshighly skilled profession and a way of socializing, as traders would gather in coffee houses to do business and examine pearls. The traders had special grading tools to separate, measure and weigh the pearls. The value of the pearl depended mainly on its size, lustre, colour, complexion and shape. Pearls were often named according to their shape and color. “Dana” was the name of the most perfect shape.
The whole economy depended on the pearling season, as the money would circulate in the market and allow the community to yield the benefit. Pearls from the region were exported to India, Persia and Turkey and sold in European and Chinese markets and the UAE pearl industry boomed as it integrated into global markets.
The decline of the pearl industry in the 1940’s was due to many factors, the Japanese production of the cheaper culture pearls in 1921, the 1930’s depression that ruined the wealth of many customers, and the ban imposed by the Indian government on pearl imports from the Gulf in 1947-48. However, the discovery of oil in the 1960’s and the birth of the industry offered many divers and fishermen a new and easy source of income