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Neurotransmission in the Brain

Certain Classes of Drugs that Affect Neurotransmission
by

Mary Le

on 18 March 2013

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Transcript of Neurotransmission in the Brain

Neruotransmission in the Brain How Certain Classes of Drugs Affect Neruotransmission in the Brain Antagonists Agonists An antagonist acts to block a receptor thus decreasing the effect of a substance. What are Neurotransmitters Allows for the communication of information throughout the body and brain Inhibit Excite Acetylcholine Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) Norephinephrine Serotonin Dopamine Some common neurotransmitters are: Some common neurotransmitters are: What they Affect Chemicals released from vesicles into the synapses which permits the continuation of action potential from one neuron to another heart rate
temperature
appetite
sleep
physical and mental performance
emotional state
ex. mood, anxiety, aggression
etc. When Drugs are Required malfunctioning of neurotransmitters
deficiencies of neurotransmitters
imbalances of neurotransmitters
disruption of neurotransmitters Extremely common in our society and is at the root of many of common health conditions When not functioning properly then the mind and body do not communicate effectively Recap: vesicles containing neurotransmitters are located at the end of axon terminals an impulse moves along the axon and releases the neurotransmitters from the presynaptic neuron attach themselves to the postsynaptic membrane causing it to depolarize diffuse across the synaptic cliff An agonist acts to mimic the effects of a specific substance movement
emotion
learning
the ability to experience pleasure and pain
involved in motivation, rewards and addictive behaviours Balance
mood
sleep
appetite
sexuality Is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter
acts through a negative feedback system to block the transmission of a signal from one cell to another
It is important for balancing the excitation in the brain learning
heart function
short term memory
muscle activation Function Function Function Function Function There are types of general classes of drugs that affect neurotransmission in the brain learning
long term memory
sleep
alertness
correlated to fight or flight stress response Fact
Recent research suggests that approximately eight out of ten people suffer from some form of neurotransmitter imbalance. Some symptoms of deficiencies and imbalances can cause any form of addiction, obesity, OCD, eating disorders, moodiness, ADHD, etc. Synaptic Transmission There are kinds of neurotransmitters: those that calm the brain and help create balance they are what stimulate the brain Inhibitory - Excitatory - Excitatory Neurotransmitters Inhibitory Neurotransmitters Dopamine is considered to be both excitatory and inhibitory. It aids with depression as well as focus Work Cited

Ankrom, Sheryl. "Neurotransmitters: The Chemical Messengers of the Brain." About.com Panic Disorder. About.com, 8 Aug. 2008. Web. 07 Dec. 2012. <http://panicdisorder.about.com/od/understandingpanic/a/neurotrans.htm>.

Finley, Mary. "Mental Disorders." Neurotransmitters. Advameg, Inc., 2012. Web. 07 Dec. 2012. <http://www.minddisorders.com/Kau-Nu/Neurotransmitters.html>.

"Human Diseases and Conditions." Brain Chemistry (Neurochemistry). Advameg, Inc., 2012. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.humanillnesses.com/Behavioral-Health-A-Br/Brain-Chemistry-Neurochemistry.html>.

"Le Bureau De L'intervention En Faveur Des Patients Des établissements Psychiatriques Et Le Centre De Santé De North Bay." Government of Ontario, Canada. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2012. <http://www.sse.gov.on.ca/mohltc/ppao/en/default.aspx>.

"Mental Health Act." Legislation : Canadian Mental Health Association, Ontario. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2012. <http://www.ontario.cmha.ca/legislation.asp?cID=6991>.

Perkins, Cynthia. "Neurotransmitters and Your Health." Neurotransmitters and Your Health. Holistic Help, 2007. Web. 05 Dec. 2012. < http://www.holistichelp.net/neurotransmitters.html>.

Sherman, Carl. "Impacts of Drugs on Neurotransmission." National Institute on Drug Abuse. National Institute on Health, 01 Oct. 2007. Web. 04 Dec. 2012. <http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/nida-notes/2007/10/impacts-drugs-neurotransmission>.

Berg, Susan. "What Happens to ACH That May Cause Alzheimer's?" EHow. Demand Media, 24 Apr. 2010. Web. 08 Dec. 2012. <http://www.ehow.com/about_6385188_happens-ach-may-cause-alzheimer_s_.html>.

Sodaro, Denise. "Is Norepinephrine Good for Anxiety?" EHow. Demand Media, 11 Oct. 2009. Web. 08 Dec. 2012.

Smith, S.E., and O. Wallace. WiseGeek. Conjecture, 05 Oct. 2012. Web. 9 Dec. 2012. <http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-dopamine.htm>.

"What Are Neurotransmitters?" What Are Neurotransmitters? Neurogistics, Inc., 2010. Web. 06 Dec. 2012. <http://www.neurogistics.com/TheScience/WhatareNeurotransmi09CE.asp>.

Wollf, J.D. "Signs of Too Much Serotonin." EHow. Demand Media, 26 June 2009. Web. 09 Dec. 2012. <http://www.ehow.com/about_5127679_signs-much-serotonin.html>.

other website to view:
http://jeb.biologists.org/content/200/2/331.full.pdf

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/821737-overview
Serotonin While medications can help to decrease symptoms, more complete and long-lasting relief is achieved through therapy that helps with behavior change Behavioral therapy and exercise should be considered as alternatives to medication in/or addition to medication when symptoms create suffering and present difficulties Have focus issues such as not remembering Stimulants such as medications for ADD/ADHD and caffeine cause dopamine to be pushed into the synapse so that focus is improved Unfortunately, stimulating dopamine consistently can cause a depletion of dopamine over time Dopamine Serotonin levels change with the season, this explains why some individuals feel miserable during winter. Physical expressions such as a rapid heartbeat, chest pains, nausea, dizziness, headaches and high blood pressure. Norepinephrine Treatment for too much norepinephrine is aimed at reducing it and relieving anxiety and feelings of panic. Low levels of norepinephrine are associated with depression The type of drug most often used are SSRIs, or serotonin reuptake inhibitors Symptoms of depression are continuing sadness, difficulty sleeping, loss of enjoyment in activities that were previously satisfying and a change in appetite Too much Too little Too little Treatment Too much Treatment Low levels of acetylcholine have been noted in Alzheimer's disease. Acetylcholine The amount of acetylcholine decreases naturally as you age In Alzheimer's disease, acetylcholine decreases much faster than normal because of the accumulation of two abnormal proteins There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease. Some drugs help ease symptoms Some drugs inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that inactivates acetylcholine. Stopping this enzyme prevents the normal breakdown of acetylcholine Treatment Too little In general
As acetylcholine levels go up in the brain, the levels of the other brain transmitters go down and vice versa (think competitive inhibition) Depression
caused by defect in the flow of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
The serotonin that should be sent to the postsynaptic membrane receptors , is instead moving back to it's originating point so the message cannot be sent to the next neuron. Too little Suspicious personality, paranoia and withdrawal from social situations Menstrual disorders, delayed puberty, infertility and decreased immunity Exhibits impulsive behavior A disease that causes a person to experience mental disturbances, and emotional reactions. Alzheimers
-> memory loss, and often is accompanied by the inability to care for oneself
It is caused by the loss of acetylcholine in the area of the brain which controls sensory and motor skills. ADHD
Caused by dopamine and norepinephrine imbalances. Too much Under normal conditions, the body doesn't overproduce serotonin, but introducing certain substances into the body (dose increase of anti-depressants) will initiate too much serotonin and is life threatening These drugs affect the dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain. Emotional expressions include fear, high anxiety and panic attacks. Treatment "Mental Health Act." Legislation : Canadian Mental Health Association, Ontario. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2012. <http://www.ontario.cmha.ca/legislation.asp?cID=6991>. Some medications reduce levels of other brain chemicals that inhibit norepinephrine "Le Bureau De L'intervention En Faveur Des Patients Des établissements Psychiatriques Et Le Centre De Santé De North Bay." Government of Ontario, Canada. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2012. <http://www.sse.gov.on.ca/mohltc/ppao/en/default.aspx>. Lead to depression, impulsive and aggressive forms of behavior, violence, and even suicide Smith, S.E., and O. Wallace. WiseGeek. Conjecture, 05 Oct. 2012. Web. 9 Dec. 2012. <http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-dopamine.htm>. When a person is accused of any crime and plead mentally ill as a defense they may get a lesser or alternative sentencing or charge. i have this info :) Some medications reduce levels of other brain chemicals that inhibit norepinephrine. Schizophrenia Cocaine Illegal Drugs and the Law Studies show a correlation between being addicted to drugs and an increase in their criminal activity.
University of British Columbia,
Rick Hansen Institute and University of Calgary have been working with Professor Tov;
have been experimenting with neurotransmitter replacement therapy Those drugs in particular stimulate the dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain which create a sense of confidence and a happy feeling Most drugs are illegal in Canada because of how addictive they are, including heroin and cocaine. Mental Illness and the Law Canadian Institutions "Section 16(1) of the Canadian Criminal Code explains the defense of mental disorder as:

“No person is criminally responsible for an act committed or an omission made while suffering from a mental disorder that rendered the person incapable of appreciating the quality and nature of the act or omission or of knowing that it was wrong.” Alzheimers It is caused by the loss of acetylcholine in the area of the brain which controls sensory and motor skills. When used continuously in great amounts leads to go through depression, and physical and emotional exhaustion. When first used, it creates a feeling of confidence and happiness Diseases & Disorders Caused by Disfunctional Neurotransmitters Caused by defects in the neurotransmitter dopamine. Caused by defect in the flow of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Depression Alternative Treatments Medication may prevent the problem, however the disfunction will never go away
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