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UCT RTM Module 2

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Transcript of UCT RTM Module 2

As you have learnt,
biological hazards
are the most dangerous of the four types of hazards commonly encountered in restaurants (the others being
chemical
,
physical
and
allergic
).


You will also discover how best to limit biological hazards in all aspects of the restaurant system – from purchasing, receiving and storage, to preparation, cooking, serving and reheating.

This presentation will cover the different types of biological hazards that can cause food-borne illness, and how to prevent these using the
Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points
system.
Types of hazards
The Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) methods that will be examined in this presentation have been proven to help prevent cases of food-borne illness in restaurants.
A study conducted by the National Center for Biotechnology Information in the United States found that, out of the restaurants they examined, those with “poor inspection scores and violations of proper temperature controls of potentially hazardous foods were, respectively, five and ten times more likely to have outbreaks than restaurants with better results.” (Irwin, Ballard, Grendon, and Kobayashi, 1989)
Restaurant food safety
The following video describes how to monitor food safety in the restaurant business.
Preventing food-borne illness from delivery to table
Disease-causing microorganisms
The most common disease-causing microorganisms are:
Staphylococcus aureus:
Once they find a favourable environment in which to grow, staphylococcus aureus thrive and are very difficult to get rid of, as they don’t die in boiling water. They are associated with boils, rashes, pimples and other skin infections.
The name for about 2,000 closely related bacteria found in animals and animal products (most common in high-protein food sources such as poultry, eggs, diary and shellfish).
Salmonella:
Clostridium perfringens:
Called the “cafeteria germ” because it grows so well in lukewarm food that is served buffet-style. While the germs are killed during reheating, their spores stay alive and thrive when the food is once again at lukewarm temperature.
These infections include the common cold, hepatitis A, norovirus or unspecified general viruses and are caused by dirty hands transferring virus cells to food or surfaces.
Streptococcus:
Caused by germs transferring from people to food (by way of sneezing, mucous or dirty hands).
Viral infections:
The
Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points
system is an internationally recognised food safety management system developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
The HACCP system
HACCP: Step 1
Assess all the potential hazards of your operation (from purchasing to serving)
a. Document the process all your ingredients follow from purchase to serving, so that you can track them closely if there are any problems.
b. Review menu items and identify potentially hazardous foods.
c. Review the storage, preparation, cooking and serving processes to identify where contamination may occur.
d. Rate the hazards based on severity and probability.
HACCP: Step 2
Identify each point that can be controlled, and identify areas where a loss of control may result in a health risk (for example, cutting board usage for different ingredients, fridge and freezer temperatures and food expiration dates). Then identify ways in which problems can be prevented, reduced or eliminated.
d. Reducing steps involved in preparation and serving.
These include:
a. Good personal hygiene, frequent hand-washing and sanitary gear (gloves, hats or hairnets and clean aprons);
b. Avoiding cross-contamination by using separate utensils and equipment for raw and cooked food, as well as meat products;
c. Proper storage, cooking and cooling procedures; and
Identify critical control points
d. Ensure that enough staff is allocated to each shift for food to be prepared and served safely.
HACCP: Step 3
Determine measurable standards and limits for each critical control point.
a. Be specific about what is required to meet each standard.
b. Calibrate food thermometers regularly.
c. Include thawing, cooking, reheating and cooling times in recipes, and keep portion sizes consistent.
HACCP: Step 4
Monitor control points in Step 3 with step-by-step charts to reassess their priority and check whether the set limits are adhered to. Identify any problems introduced by the limits.
Monitor all the critical control points
HACCP: Step 5
When a CCP surpasses a limit, corrective action needs to be taken to ensure that the issue is resolved. This includes implementing measures such as extending cooking times or altering guidelines for determining food expiration and discardment.
Establish corrective actions
HACCP: Step 6
Establish a procedure to verify whether the system is working for your establishment. This will involve reviewing it over time. Train your employees in your system so that they adhere to all the limits and enter valid data onto charts or monitoring systems. Ensure that you inspect all areas of the kitchen, bathrooms, delivery areas and the front of house regularly.
Develop procedures to ensure that your HACCP programme is working
HACCP: Step 7
Develop a system to document the HACCP process, monitor results, and keep records of customer illness complaints.
This step is crucial, because if customers decide to take legal action after falling ill, or complain to the Department of Health, these records will show how your restaurant attempted to prevent food-borne illness.
Establish record-keeping procedures
Now that you have learnt the theory behind implementing an HACCP system in a restaurant, you will examine how these can be applied in a practical manner.
While food-borne illness can, in some instances, be unavoidable, there are many small steps that can be implemented to curtail its effects.
Choose vendors carefully and be clear about your expectations;
When purchasing ingredients, ensure that you:
Source sustainable and locally grown food in a way that supports local suppliers;
Purchasing
Receiving
Stocking up on clean carts ready to transport ingredients;
Preparing fridge and freezer space before deliveries arrive;
Cleaning out the receiving area and clearing any debris; and
Inspecting the truck when it arrives with the food.
Checking expiration dates on all ingredients;
Checking that frozen foods are airtight and still frozen;
Rejecting items that show signs of damage, such as foam, rust, bad odours, and insect infestations; and
Checking for dirt on crates or containers.

If you have any suspicions about how the food has been transported, record the temperature of chilled food as it is removed from delivery vehicles.
When receiving goods, you can prepare by:
You should also inspect the food when it arrives by:
Include food and safety standards in purchase agreements;
Inspect the delivery vehicles, and if possible, the source building; and
Keep careful records of where your ingredients come from.
Obtain safe and wholesome ingredients;
Includes cans, baking supplies and root vegetables.
Dry storage:
Keep all items orderly and off the floor.
Store between 10°C and 15°C.
Clean all spills immediately and thoroughly.
Keep cleaning agents and chemicals labelled and separate from all foods.
Storage
Cold storage:
Includes fresh meat, dairy, shellfish, most fruits and vegetables and hot leftovers.
Use clean, non-absorbent, covered containers.
Store raw food below cooked and ready-to-eat food.
Ensure that fluids from poultry, fish and meat don't leak.
Ensure the temperature stays below 5°C.
Don’t overload the fridge; air needs to flow around items to ensure efficient cooling.
Meat, seafood, some fruit and vegetables and some dairy products are suitable for freezing.
Frozen storage:
Date items with a freezer marker and discard items when they pass their expiration date.
Allow heated items to cool before placing in the freezer.
Open freezers only when necessary.
Monitor and record the temperature of each freezer.
Store frozen foods in airtight containers.
Preparation
Wash or scrub fruits and vegetables.
Equip staff with headwear, clean aprons and latex gloves.
Only prepare meat, poultry and shellfish on specific boards (colour-code them by type of ingredient) that are able to withstand thorough washing between uses.
Surfaces and hands should be washed before food preparation.
Sanitise knives, peelers and boards between use.
Thawed at the wrong temperature, bacteria in food multiply rapidly. To thaw:

If marinating, do so in the refrigerator and discard extra marinade.
Place on a pan in the lowest shelf in the refrigerator.
Place in drinkable running water for up to two hours
Thawing
Cooking
Keeps all foods at an internal temperature of 65°C.
Even properly-handled food can be contaminated in the cooking process.

To cook safely, ensure that your chef:

Stirs foods frequently to ensure thorough cooking;
Cooks in consistent sizes – this makes cooking time uniform;
Does not interrupt the cooking process and then continue at a later stage;
Uses thermometers to verify accuracy of heating equipment;
Checks food temperature in several parts; and
Keep cash handling separate from food handling.
Serving and holding
Wash hands with soap before serving food.
Use long-handled ladles and spoons so that food is not touched.
Do not touch utensils where they will come into contact with someone’s mouth.
Wear gloves if serving food by hand.
Cover cuts or infections with clean bandages and gloves.
Clean and sanitise all utensils between uses.
Keep food covered by a lid wherever possible.
Cooling and reheating
Heat foods as close to serving time as possible.
Chill or heat in small amounts as quickly as possible to avoid food sitting in the danger zone.
Use stainless steel containers where possible.
Tightly cover and label cooled foods.
Store prepared foods and leftovers above raw foods.
Chill or heat small quantities at a time – this means that they will cool down or heat up faster.
Useful resources
Iowa University: Food Safety Training
http://www.extension.iastate.edu/foodsafety/educators/index.cfm?parent=2
How to complain about food poisoning:
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-41650/How-complain-food-poisoning.html
Food Safety News:
http://www.foodsafetynews.com/
References
Ballard, J. et al. 1989.
Results of routine restaurant inspections can predict outbreaks of foodborne illness: the Seattle-King County experience.
Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1349498/ [2017, July 7].
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