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Transcript of TWPSG7A
Before The Newcomers
For thousands of years, First Nations peoples had lived on the North American continent. They were self-sufficient, with complex societies. First Nations had always had a close relationship with the land, and believed it was theirs to use, not to own. They relied on their land for their basic needs of living. They respected their land and its creatures and surroundings. They relied on their elders for leadership and judgement. The Iroquois Confederacy is one of the worlds oldest democratic society.
1756-1763: The Seven Years' War
The Seven Years' war was fought between the British and French. The war was fought around the world, but at 1758 in North America the war got solemn. In that year, the British captured Louisbourgh and destroyed the fortress making the St. Lawrence River unguarded to the British invasion. At Beauport Shore, 4000 British soldiers attacked the French defenders and about 440 British soldiers were killed or wounded. It was a truly stunning defeat!
Because of the British's "Thin Red Line", the French were cut to pieces. General James Wolfe and Marquis Louis-Joseph de Montcalm were both killed at the Plains of Abraham. The French governor, Marquis de Vaudreuil surrendered to General Jeffrey Amherst, the new british commander, and Quebec went under the British control.
1750: The Thirteen Colonies
The British had 13 colonies along the south and east coast of Quebec. They stretched from Massachusetts (now Maine) in the north to the south, to Georgia. Multiple groups and individuals had founded the individual colonies. In the north, there were large forests and severe winters. The middle colonies had rich agriculture lands for vegetables and grain. In the southern colonies the weather was hot and the crops such as cotton and rice grew very well.
There were also various religions too. In Virginia, founded in 1607, there were numerous followers of the Church of England. In 1634, Maryland was established and received many Roman Catholic families from Britain.
1774: The Quebec Act
1776: The American Revolution
The Cause of the War of 1812
Britain and the United States have fought a war in the American Revolution, only 30 years earlier. And now once again they went to war in 1812. In the previous war, Upper and Lower Canada were drawn in with them. In 1799, Britain and France went to war. The French ruler Napoleon Bonaparte tried to challenge Britain's position as the military power in the world. The struggles between the nations are called the Napoleonic Wars and lasted until 1815. France suffered a great deal in the Seven Years' War when it lost New France to Britain, and now Napoleon wanted to make France the number one power in the world. The two nations fought numerous important battles in Europe. They tried to weaken each other by disrupting trade. France tried to prevent Britain from trading with other countries and Britain did the same to France, drawing other countries in Europe into the battles.
Did New France make France rich?
As a matter of fact, New France did not make its parent country as rich as Samuel de Champlain thought it could. Louis XIV never intended to invest much money to this colony. The population remained small, comparing to the British colonies in New England. In 1720, New England had a population around 466, 200, while New France had only about 24, 900 people. The climate in New France was harsher than in New England. The winters were severe and growing season was short, making New France not a very populated place.
The Quebec Act made many major changes to the situation by establishing French rights. It enlarged the territory of Quebec to include Labrador, some islands in the St. Lawrence River, and the Ohio Valley. It also created a Council of Representatives to pass the laws for the territory. Roman Catholics were allowed to participate in the governments as a member of the council. The English civil law with French civil law was replaced, meaning that the seigneurial system was legal once again.
There were variety of reaction towards the Quebec Act, the British North Americans despised everything about the Quebec Act and the Quebecois loved it all. The First Nations was not anxious to have settlers in their territories, but they regarded the Quebecois less threatening than the British North Americans. If war broke out between Britain and British North America, the First Nations of the region would most likely take the side of Britain.
Loyalists migration to Quebec
The End of the War of 1812
3 Major battles played in the War of 1812
Some Loyalists from the New England area migrated to the north towards the St. Lawrence region of Quebec. Many of the land around Montreal and Quebec City had been settled by this time, so they looked for new land areas to develop. Majority of the places in Quebec have French names but names like Drummondville, Sherbrooke, and Granby, east of Montreal are examples of communities that were founded by the loyalists, and are known today as the Eastern Townships.
In June 1812, the United States declared war on Britain. The American seemed to have more important advantages. Britain had a much larger navy but most of its ships were in Europe. The Americans army had superior numbers but had vast territories to defend against the Britain, 2000 kilometers, and had only 10 000 regular British ships to defend the whole area. Earlier in the war, Sir Isaac Brock commanded British forces in Upper Canada. With his ally, Tecumseh, he planned to stop the Americans before they could get a good start. The first attack transpired at the American Fort Michilimackinac on Mackinac Island. The American commander was unprepared, and had surrendered to the British and First Nations without a single shot being fired. With the easy victories, the British army descended on Detroit. With a force of 400 soldiers (100 regular, and 300 militia) and 600 First Nations warriors, they prepared to fight General Hull's force of more than 2500 soldiers who were inside the fort in Detroit. Brock and Tecumseh using the tactic of trickery forced Hull to run up the white flag of surrender.
One of the most famous battles of the war was fought near the Niagara-on-the-lake. In October 1812, American troops crossed the Niagara River from the New York State into Upper Canada. At St Queenston the Americans took the high ground where the British had been firing down at the river. General Brock rushed to the attack, only to get struck by a sniper as he led his troops to attack. He died almost instantly but brought enough time for the British forces to advance. A battle won and a leader lost.
The Quebec Act and the taxes enraged the British North Americans. The American Revolution war (a.k.a the War of Independence) broke out in 1775. Representatives of the Thirteen Colonies including Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson, presented the Declaration of Independence at the meeting in Philadelphia in the summer of 1776, they called it The Continental Congress. In July, twelve of the Thirteen Colonies voted in the favor of the declaration and on July 4, 1776, the United States of America was declared an official independent nation. The Revolution War lasted until 1783.
The Treaty of Ghent was signed in Ghent, Belgium, on Christmas Eve 1814 by Great Britain and the United States to end the War of 1812. This painting illustrates the signing of "A Hundred Years Peace"
The British and American representatives try to reach a peace agreement at Ghent, Belgium. In December 1814 they signed the Treaty of Ghent, bring an end to the war. There were no major victories on either side. The border between the British North American and the United States remained the same.
General Isaac Brock's death at Queenston Heights on October 1812.
General Isaac Brock and Tecumseh
Colin M. Bain. Pearson Canadian History 7. Don Mills ON: Pearson Canada Inc., 2008.
Painted in 1770 . This painting is known as "The Death of James Wolfe"
"Canoe Manned by Voyageurs Passing a Waterfall" Painted in 1819
By: Jessie Jiang