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History of American Schooling, 1880s to 1920

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Teresa Allen

on 11 September 2012

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Transcript of History of American Schooling, 1880s to 1920

The 1880s to 1920s were a period of rapid, and at times, violent growth for the United States in terms of population, geographic expansion, governmental policies and bureaucracy
Education shifted from one-room schoolhouses in which students of all ages were taught together (in rural areas) and private, elite schools in urban areas to a broad, state-by-state organized system of elementary and secondary public education
Also developed in this time period were some key elements of the style of American education – Home Economics (now called Family and Life Sciences), extracurricular sports and other activities
The aims of public education were largely to “Americanize” the masses of new immigrants and prepare workers for life in an increasingly modernized, industrialized world
America achieved higher overall literacy rates and a higher age of publicly educated population (14 years) than many of its peer countries
And yet education was still unequal in terms of minority populations (African Americans, Asians, and women in particular) 1880s to 1920s - Conclusions The American Home Economic Association was created in 1909 and its
aims were to create curriculum which would make running a home a science
Increasingly, young women were taught to rely on pre-prepared foods and how to efficiently tackle housework so that their husbands “would want to hurry home from work rather than stop at a tavern” and “housewives were to improve the political and cultural level of the American home”
Additionally, “home economics hoped to persuade immigrant children to abandon the diet of their parents for the new American cuisine”
Spring, American Education (20) 1880s to 1920s – Home Economics Before the 1880s few rural areas had schools and yet the US population had one of the highest literacy rates due to free elementary
schools in all states; education was free but not widely available
The first public high school opened in Boston in 1821 and by the start of the 20th century public secondary schools numbered more than private secondary schools
At the start of the 20th century 34 states had compulsory school laws. 30 of these required school attendance through age 14 (or more.).
“As a result, by 1910, 72% of American children attended school. Half the nation’s children attended one-room schools. In 1916, every state required students to complete elementary school”
Wikipedia, History of Education in the United States 1880s to 1920s - Growth & Development of Schools Booker T. Washington
W.E.B. Dubois
John Dewey
Edward Cubberly 1880s to 1920s - Visionaries To meet growing demands for workers, particularly in industrialized jobs, the importance of schooling increases
“In the nineteenth century … a school diploma indicated to employers that the applicant had been punctual, regularly attended school, completed assigned tasks, and was obedient to authority. In other words, the bearer showed good work habits”
Spring, American Education (8)
Political Goals
“In the United States, patriotic exercises and fostering school spirit were emphasized after the arrival in the 1890s of large numbers of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe”
Spring, American Education (16)
The Pledge of Allegiance was written and implemented in schools in 1892 1880s – 1890s - Education Policy Eastman patents the flexible film roll
The first skyscraper is built in Chicago
The Brooklyn Bridge opens
Edison invents and expands incandescent lighting
Ottmar Mergenthaler patents the linotype machine
The Statue of Liberty is dedicated
Edison patents a motion picture camera
Telephones operate between Chicago and New York
Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court upholds separate but equal legislation
X-rays are first used to treat breast cancer
The Wright brothers fly
Henry Ford builds the Model T automobile 1880s to 1920s - Innovation A gunfight at the O.K. corral kills Western legends
The Nez Perce war kills many Native Americans
Dawes Severalty Act ultimately reduces the amount of land held by
Native Americans
The Oklahoma Land Rush opens the West to new settlers and displaces millions of Native Americans
North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Arizona, Oklahoma achieve statehood
Wars and expansion continue
Wounded Knee massacre
Klondike gold rush
Hawaii annexation
Spanish-American war
Philippine insurrection
Puerto Rico becomes a territory
Immigration laws exclude Japanese workers 1890s to 1920s - Wild West, Settlement, Expansion, Displacement Through a series of tightened legislation, Chinese nationals are barred from immigrating and/or re-entry
Yosemite Park is established
First international copyright law is implemented
Department of Labor and Commerce is created
National Child Labor Committee is established
Women’s suffrage movement surges
The 16th Amendment, graduated national income tax, is ratified
The 17th Amendment, popular election instead of appointment of senators, is passed
The Supreme Court dissolves Standard Oil Company and the American Tobacco Company
Immigration Act requires literacy test for immigrants
Prohibition becomes law 1880s to 1920s - Legislation Rockefeller organizes the Standard Oil Trust
Supreme Court rules that corporations are “persons” and cannot be denied profits or right of due process
American Federation of Labor begins
The Interstate Commerce Act and first anti-trust laws pass
Sherman anti-trust law is put in place
Strikes figure significantly in politics – Coxey’s Army, Pullman strike, Coeur d’Alene silver mine workers, steelworkers 1880 to 1920s – Capitalism President Garfield is shot and killed; he is replaced by Arthur.
McKinley is inaugurated in 1897 and is assassinated in 1901; Roosevelt is confirmed as president (after McKinley is shot)
The Ludlow massacre, National Guard killing of striking workers, causes demonstrations across the nation
World War I begins in 1914; U.S. enters the war in 1917
The Titanic sinks 1880 to 1920s – Violent Changes 1880s to 1920s Influences on Policy “In American education, the political process determines the goals of public schools which in turn determines what is taught and how it is taught”
Joel Spring American Education (9) Public School Curriculum and the Political Process Brief Timeline of American Literature and Events, http://public.wsu.edu/~campbelld/amlit/
Fourteenth Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1920 Population 1920-Number and Distribution of Inhabitants Volume I
Maps ETC, Maps ETC is a part of the Educational Technology Clearinghouse, produced by the Florida Center for Instructional Technology © 2009, College of Education, University of South Florida
PBS, School: the Story of American Public Education http://www.pbs.org/kcet/publicschool/
Spring, Joel. American Education, 13th Edition. McGraw Hill, 2007.
Wikipedia, History of Education in the United States, http://en.Wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_education_in_the_United_States 1880s to 1920s - References In 1918 the National Education Association’s report, the Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education, “set the stage for high school to become the major public institution for socialization of youth through school dances, athletics, student government, clubs” and so on. Spring, American Education (21)
Between 1897 and 1914 high schools increased in number and altered curriculum
“In 1910, for example, 9% of Americans had a high school diploma; in 1935, the rate was 40%” Wikipedia, History of Education in the United States 1880s to 1920s - High Schools and Higher Ed The Progressive Movement sought to eliminate waste and corruption from all aspects of American life, including education.
Atlanta was seen as a model of reform in 1897, when the superintendent’s power increased and the power of ward bosses eliminated. In addition, best practices were determined for school building, curriculum and instructional standardization
Another model city was Gary, Indiana, a “new steel” city. William Wirt, superintendent (1907-1930) focused on efficient use of facilities, dividing students into “platoons” and rotating them between academics and extracurriculars (like shop, gymnasium, etc.) He also started a night school program “to Americanize the new immigrants,” which focused on vocational education. More than 200 cities adopted the “Gary Plan” only to abandon its practices during the Great Depression
Wikipedia, History of Education in the United States 1880s to 1920s - Model Schools By 1920 32% of youths aged 14-17 were enrolled in high school
Total 14-17 year old population was almost 2 million
Wikipedia, History of American Education 1920 - High School Enrolment In 1890 7% of the youth aged 14-17 population were enrolled in high school
Total 14-17 year old population: 200,000
Wikipedia, History of American Education 1890 – High School Enrolment “The goals for public schools established in the nineteenth century were:
reducing political and social unrest by teaching future citizens a common set of political values and patriotism;
reducing social tensions by promising to provide students with equality of economic opportunity to compete for income;
decreasing crime by teaching morality; and
eradicating poverty by stimulating economic growth. “
Joel Spring in American Education (9) Goals of schooling in the nineteenth century Fourteenth Census of the United States
Taken in the Year 1920 Population 1920-Number and Distribution of Inhabitants Volume I Population and Distribution,
1920 Census Teresa Allen Purpose of Schools
in America, 1880s - 1920 1920 - High School Enrolment Population and Distribution,
1920 Census By 1920 32% of youths aged 14-17 were enrolled in high school
Total 14-17 year old population was almost 2 million
Wikipedia, History of American Education
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