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Transcript of Buyer Behaviour
-The use of props and settings used by consumers to define their social roles becomes part of their 'selves' What ethical issues arise in using the self concept theory in Marketing? - Thin models/ Photoshoping brain washing women. Why is this significant in Marketing? The image consumers have of themselves influences their purchases. This occurs in more socially- expressive (conspicuous) products thank more mundane products. This also impacts the types of ads used. Personality definition: Psychoanalytic Theory Tensions that occur during childhood shape our personalities in adult life.
Unconscious needs determine our motivation and behaviour.
Personality arises out of a set of internal struggles within the mind The internal struggles are between three parts of the mind: The Id- Subconcious motives/ needs. e.g. food Ego- Manages the id by attaining goals in a socially acceptable way Superego- Conscience, guilt, morals, values. SELF CONCEPT Social Psychology theories Karen Horney, Concentrated of Child- parent relationships and classified the relationship to be: Compliant: Moving towards others- Need to be loved or appreciated Aggressive: Moving against others- Desire to excel & gain admiration Detached: Move away from others- desire for independence, self reliance & minimal obligations Marketers use this personality in position for unique products Trait theory/ Five Factor model
Social- cultural theories
Self Concept Personality theories include... Five factor model Trait theory proposes that personality is composed of enduring characteristics that differentiate individuals. Trait Theory of Personality These traits may be inborn (genetic) or acquired in life. Evans interpretation of the trait theory... Evans definition: An individuals characteristic ways of responding to the social any physical environment. (EVANS et al, 2009) Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientious Emotional Stability Openness to experience 'Consumers' learned tendencies to evaluate brands in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way. (ASSAEL, 2004) Physical object- Brand or product
Social object- Sales assistant
An action- buying products that can harm the environment
Advertising- a particular ad Structural models of attitudes: Single component Attitude Model
Tri- Component Attitude Model
Multi- Attribute Attitude Model
Theory of Reasoned Action Model
Theory of Planned Behaviour Evans take... Single Component Attitude Model Evaluation of overall feelings towards a product. Tri- Component Attitude Model Thoughts, beliefs, Feelings Feelings Intention to behave towards products Multi- Attribute Attitude Model Cognition:
Knowledge of and beliefs about objects & ideas
Can be gained from experience or talking with others
Knowledge and belies are about the existence of the product attributes - e.g. beliefs about the reliability of a car Affect:
feelings or emotions towards a product/ brand
Can be negative, positive or neutral
E.g. A person may love or hate or may like or dislike a brand or product Conation:
Often referred to as the behavioural componant
Tendancy or intention to act
Measurement of the component expressed by extent of intention to buy Fishbein's Model: Theory of Reasoned Action Model 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 1. Going on holiday will lead to the outcome of relaxing 2. I think it's good to be relaxed 5. There's a positive attitude to going on holiday 3. What family & friends think about the holiday. I.E. location, time of year, activities 4. Do you trust what they say? 6. Positive or negative- who do you trust more? Your own opinion or families?- In this case, both are positive 7. Research/ plan/ book the holiday 8. Going on holiday Looking at going on holiday... Theory of Planned Behaviour Operate/ Instrumental Conditioning Based on PAVLOF, 1928 Pavlof used dogs to look at associations with a certain stimuli and its food. This is now known as classic conditioning. Associations we have with certain brands... Some examples:
Gold GTI= Sporty
Levi= Trendy youth
Benetton= Colourful Brand associations Marketing Applications A brand can be simultaneously and repeatability paired with popular music- each time the consumer thinks of the brand the positive feelings associated with that music are aroused. Use of celebrities in advertising and the aim is to transfer the endorser's characteristics and what they stand for to the brand. The use of a familiar iconic voice Based on SKINNER, 1938 By pairing rewards or punishments with certain behaviors, SKINNER showed that these behaviors can be reinforced. Marketing Applications: A charity sends a direct mail and asks for a donation of £30 a month (via direct debit) in exchange for a free gift. Reinforcement (positively rewarded for donating the money) An internet based phone company calls a consumer and insits that they top up their account by £100. Consumer acts accordingly (tops up £100) to get rid of the annoying call from company. (Negatively rewarded) Behavioural Learning Operant Conditioning: Stimulus generalisation: A brand is associated with a certain image so other brands do the same to steal their associations.
The extension of the conditioned response from the original stimulus to a similar stimulus E.G. Audi food advert Stimulus discrimination: Involves the selection of a specific stimuli from a number of similar stimuli.