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China under Mao Zedong

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Nadine Hitz

on 29 May 2014

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Transcript of China under Mao Zedong

May 4th Movement 1919
protest against Treaty of Versailles

establishment of the Communist Party (CCP)
flight of CCP
--> China united under the KMT

establishment of the Chinese Soviet Republic in the Jianxi province by the CCP
Start of 2nd Sino-Japanese War 1937
bad Chinese resistance
KTM and CCP stop their struggle, but still don't unite

KTM: lots of losses
CCP: new leader: Mao Zedong
guerilla warfare --> less losses

1st five-year plan 1953-1957
Under Lenin's Banner, Forward to victory!
2nd five-year plan 1958-1961:
The Great Leap Forward
"Going all out, aiming high and achieving greater, faster, better, and more economical results in building socialism."
China under Mao Zedong
Qing Dynasty
Xinghai Revolution 1911-1912
no more empire --> Republic of China

Sun Yat-Sen

establishment of the political party: Kuomintang (KTM)
entry into WWI 1917
End of 2nd Sino-Japanese War and
WWII 1945
victory of China with help of U.S. troops
Japanese surrender

CCP contolls more territory than KMT
less losses
a lot of followers, especially peasants

outbreak of civil war (CCP vs. KMT) in China
People's Republic of China 1949
Mao and CCP win civil war

KMT flee to Taiwan --> Republic of China

many communist laws are passed:
control of media
agrarian reform, no more landlords
no more foreigners, no more foreign businesses
fixed prices and wages
state bank only
private businesses under state control (1953)
attack on Pearl Harbor 1941
Let's march forward under
the banner of Mao Zedong!
"The great famine"
Chinese diet depends on foodgrain
backward agricultural technology --> harvests depend on climate
droughts & floods (1959-1961) --> bad harvests
peasants move from countryside to urban regions --> lack of labour force in the agricultural sector
industrial areas replace grain-sawn areas
unequal distribution of food
uniform (& counterproductive) methods
lack of motivation

--> massive decline in grain output --> famine
People's communes
Overtake Great Britain in industrial production within 15 years
„Go all out and aim high. The East leaps forward, the West is worried“
"The commune is like a gigantic dragon, production is visibly awe-inspiring"
urban population:
increase from 99.49 Mio (1957) to 130.73 Mio (1960)

urban labour force:
increase from 31 Mio (1957) to 52 Mio (1958)
5'000 households
share everything --> no private posession
economic development!
China's role in the cold war
at first: Stalin and Soviet Union = role model for China

after death of Stalin: fight for worldwide communist supremacy

helped North Korea against USA

possible Soviet invasion in China

Richard Nixon acknowledged existence of People's Republic of China
Full transcript