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Chapter 4 - Section 2 - Life in Ancient Egypt
Transcript of Chapter 4 - Section 2 - Life in Ancient Egypt
Egyptian Social Classes
Women and Children
Commonly kept pets in ancient Egypt included:
- Birds such as falcons, ducks, turtle doves, hoopoes (small, colorful bird), and geese (by nobles) were common pets.
- Perhaps first domesticated by Egyptians, the cat was valued as a controller of pest and vermin (mouse-catcher). They also had value as companions to their owners, which were mostly women. Despite their popularity, there is only evidence of one instance where a pet cat had a name. Its name was "the Pleasant One".
- The main pet of ancient Egypt, the dog was beloved by all classes. The dog is thought to be the earliest domesticated animal, and was used as a hunting partner, an aid to herders and farmers, and as a watchdog. Unlike any other type of pet, a family dog was almost always named; in fact many were given human names just as if they were a human family member. They are the only species to be given that honor in Egypt. The love affair Egypt had with its dogs is represented in the many coffins found containing the family pet.
- These were domesticated and kept in the home. They were loved for their gentle nature.
- Archaeologists presume that pet lions had their deadly claws and fangs removed before being given pet status. They were royal pets, and regularly roamed palace grounds. The amount of domestication that occurred is unknown.
- Green or vervet monkeys and baboons were second only to dogs in popularity as pets. This popularity is mostly due to their ability to be trained to dance, sing, or play musical instruments for the entertainment of their human companions. They were appreciated for their comic appeal, and were customarily kept collared and leashed. Those who were owned by wealthy families often wore gold jewelry as fine as that worn by humans .
Math and Science
If pyramids have bricks
How many bricks are needed to build pyramids?
Life after Death
Your name in Hieroglyphics
It represents a looped rope which has the magical power to protect the name that is written inside it.
Cartouches were first used about 2500 BC. They were originally circular in shape, but gradually changed to an oval form with flat sides. This shape allowed a better arrangement of the hieroglyphs inside it.
On becoming king, the Pharaoh would adopt a royal name. This was called the 'prenomen'. It was often displayed along with the 'nomen' (the Pharaoah's birth name) in the form of a double cartouche.
Our example of the cartouche above is based on Tutankhamun’s 'nomen'. The three hieroglyphs at the top make up the name 'AMUN' and are placed in the most important position. The bird with two bread loaves reads 'TUT' and to its left is the symbol 'ANKH' which represents life. On the bottom row the crook which means 'ruler' is accompanied by two signs representing the city of Thebes.
Tutankhamun ( c. 1352 - 1325 BC ) became Pharaoh about the age of 9 and ruled until his death at 18. Little is known about him and he does not seem to have any major achievements.
However, he is one of the most famous pharoahs due to the discovery of his incredible tomb. It was found in 1922, in the Valley of the Kings at Luxor, by the British archaeologist, Howard Carter and his patron, Lord Carnarvon. In 1923, a few months after entering the tomb, Lord Carnarvon died. At the same time there was a power failure in Cairo and his dog in England also died. As a result, this gave rise to the myth of Tutankhamun's curse.
Tutankhamun's tomb was the most complete burial chamber ever found. While many other tombs had been plundered by thieves, Tutankhamun's was virtually untouched and filled with priceless treasures.
cleaned the statues
changed statues clothes
pleased the gods
mines and quarries
public building projects
care for the children
worked in the fields
played with toys
wealthy went to school
married by early teens
Geometric shapes were
sacred to Egyptians
By studying the stars,
they invented the calendar
prosperity continues in the afterlife