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Indian Architecture

Landscape Architecture in India
by

Clarisse Diy

on 2 October 2012

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Transcript of Indian Architecture

the land of colour and contrasts Welcome to India! Mother India Bharat Mata a visual journey to India Namaste! extremely hot to serverly cold Climate Environment & Geography The Land a nation of rich ethnic diversity The People The Jewel in the Crown INDIA “The land of dreams and contrasts, of palaces and hovels…of giants and Aladdin lamps, of tigers and elephants, of cobras and the jungle, the country of a hundred nations, of a thousand religions and a million gods.” -Mark Twain Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity a land of many faiths Brahmins
Kshatriyas
Vaishyas
Shudras
Outcasts The Caste System Mohenjodaro and Harappa Early Indian Civilization Dirajeeng: India's Tea Capital Predominantly an agrarian society Built in 1727
Sawai Jai Singh-II (ruler during that time)
Jaipur was the first planned city of its time
Walled City This is because of color of the stone used exclusively in the walled city and from the fact that the whole city was painted pink in 1853 to welcome the Prince of Wales. WHY
PINK CITY? City Gate The city was planned according to Indian Vastu Shastra and Shilpa Shastra.
Vastu Shastra- Vedic Planning for the comfort and prosperity of the citizens URBAN
Landscapes JAIPUR built by the Mughals
in the Islamic style of architecture Mughal Gardens Vidyadhar Bhattacharya
-chief architect and city planner of Jaipur City PLANNING The City Beautiful CHANDIGARH WHY "THE CITY BEAUTIFUL"? It is dubbed as "The City Beautiful"
due to its beautiful surroundings,
central grid of gardens,
each dedicated to
different species of flora. NEW DELHI
The Capital City As the national capital,
New Delhi is the seat of
executive,
legislative,
and judiciary branches
of the Government of India. British Colonial Gardens and Settlements Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker The foundation of the city was laid on 15 December 1911. The directions of each street and market are East to West and North to South.
The Eastern gate is called Suraj (Sun) Pol, while the Western gate is called Chand (Moon) Pol.
There are three gates facing East, West, and North and a Northern gate (known as Zorawar Singh gate) which faces toward the ancestral capital of Amber, while many gates face South. British East India Company gained control of all Indian trade The Battle of Plassey (June 1757) established the British East India Company's dominance over the Indian subcontinent. The British Government establishes rule over India Aug. 2, 1858 - British Parliament passes India Act Because the Company controlled most of India by 1858, the India Act effectively transferred that control to the British crown. The city is protected by high walls, with wide, straight avenues that divide it into nine sectors, apparently reflecting the nine divisions of the universe, resembling the Indian horoscope. DESIGN EXPRESSIONS PALACES Amber Fort Hawa Mahal City Palace Jal Mahal GARDENS Sisodia-rani-ka-Bagh Vidyadhar Gardens Amber Fort Garden Site was selected in 1948
-Central Location in the State
-availability of sufficient water supply
-fertile soil
-beautiful site (good view of Shivalik hills)
-moderate climate
-gradient of land for natural drainage He is one of the pioneers of
what we now call
"Modern Architecture" Le Corbusier
(Charles-Édouard Jeanneret) He developed the
Master Plan for Chandigarh DESIGN EXPRESSIONS Secretariat Building Capitol Complex Rose Garden Chandigarh Rock Garden -set up in 1967 with the support of Chandigarh’s first Chief Commissioner, late Dr M S Randhawa Nek Chand, 1957 The Secretariat building helps in defining space of the Capitol Complex. It emphasize a sense of hierarchy of façades and by its sheer cliff like size and volume, completes the vista through distant mountains, where eye is led onwards to the smaller, more significant buildings and space beyond. Le Corbusier summed up his work on the city in an "edict": Edict of Chandigarh
The object of this edict is to enlighten the present and future citizens of Chandigarh about the basic concepts of planning of the city so that they become its guardians and save it from whims of individuals. This edict sets out the following basic ideas underlying the planning of the city.
Human Scale
The city of Chandigarh is planned to human scale. It puts us in touch with the infinite cosmos and nature. It provides us with places and buildings for all human activities by which the citizens can live a full and harmonious life. Here the radiance of nature and heart are within our reach.
Sectors

This city is composed of sectors. Each sector is 800 meters by 1,200 meters, enclosed by roads allocated to fast mechanised transport and sealed to direct access from the houses.

Each sector caters to the daily needs of its inhabitants, which vary from 5,000 to 25,000 and has a green strip oriented longitudinally stretching centrally along the sector in the direction of the mountains. The green strip should stay uninterrupted and accommodate schools, sports fields, walks and recreational facilities for the sector.

Vehicular traffic is completely forbidden in the green strips, where tranquility shall reign and the curse of noise shall not penetrate. Roads
The roads of the city are classified into seven categories, known as the system of 7 Vs, as below: V-1 -- Fast roads connecting Chandigarh to other towns; V-2 -- arterial roads; V-3 -- Fast vehicular roads; V-4 -- Meandering shopping streets; V-5 -- Sector circulation roads; V-6 Access roads to houses; V-7 -- footpaths and cycle tracks.
Buses will ply only on V-1, V-2, V-3 and V-4 roads. A wall shall seal the V-3 roads from the sectors.
It was this framework that dictated
the choice and application of symbology and influences from both Hindu, Buddhist and Muslim architecture. Built to be a symbol of British power and supremacy DESIGN EXPRESSIONS Rashtrapati Bhavan The India Gate built in 1931
was inspired by the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. Palladian Architecture Lotus Temple is one of the remarkable
architectures of Bahai faith.
It is located at Kalkaji in New Delhi.
Architect: Fariborz Sahba Main Temple, New Delhi, India
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