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Transcript of American Military
Started as a Political rebellion against Parliament of Great Britain
Formed a unifying Continental Congress
Eventually led to Boston Tea Party
London responded by stopping self government in Massachusetts
Put General Thomas Gage in charge as governor Battles of Lexington and Concord Gage learned that weapons were being gathered in Concord
Sent British troops to seize and destroy them
(13 Colonies lacked an official Army)
(Used support of local Militia to fight battles)
Confronted by local Militia
Troops exchanged fire
First official battle between England and the Colonies Militia Revolutionaries did not have an official army up until 1776
Militia provided short-term support to the regulars in the field throughout the war
Militia was only to meet a threat, or prepare to meet a threat, for short periods of time
They were used for small military operations, mostly against Native American tribes but also to resist raids by small military forces of neighboring colonies.
Composed of the body of adult male citizens of a community, town, or local region.
The minimum enlistment age was 16 years of age, or 15 with parental consent. Militia continued… Militia service was different than that of military service
Expected to provide their own weapons, equipment, or supplies
Weren't Usually paid
Tho may later be compensated for losses or expenditures.
Were lightly armed, had little training, and usually did not have uniforms Creation of Army On April 23, 1775, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress authorized the raising of a colonial army
26 company regiments
On June 14, 1775, the Second Continental Congress decided to proceed with the establishment of a Continental Army for purposes of common defense Washington Appointed George Washington as commander-in-chief.
Beginning of 1776, Washington's army had 20,000 men
Two-thirds enlisted in the Continental Army and the other third in the various state militias. The war was officially between the Colonists and England
But the Colonists had help from France, Spain, and the Dutch republic
Secretly gave them supplies, ammunition and weapons Help Naval Forces The American colonists did not have any ships fit for warfare
relied mainly on privateers to harass British ships.
By the end of the war the American privateers had close to 1,700 ships, and they had captured 2,283 enemy ships.
The Continental Congress authorized the creation of a small Continental Navy in October 1775
primarily used for commerce raiding. African Americans in the Military African Americans—slave and free—served on both sides during the war.
The British recruited slaves of Patriot masters by promising freedom to those who served.
Once the Continental Army proved to be short on man-power, George Washington lifted the ban on black enlistment in January 1776.
Small all-black units were formed in Rhode Island and Massachusetts.
At least 5,000 black soldiers fought for the Revolutionary cause.
in South Carolina alone, nearly 25,000 slaves fled, migrated, joined the British forces or died during the of the war. Native Americans Many Native American communities were divided over the question of how to respond to the conflict.
Most Native Americans opposed the United States as a potential threat to their territory, though a few tribes were on friendly terms with the Americans
The Iroquois Confederacy was shattered as a result of the conflict
The Continental Army sent the Sullivan Expedition on raids throughout New York to break down the tribes thathad sided with the British. Enlisted men usually wore their ordinary brown work clothes
General Washington issued uniform specifications choosing dark blue coats with a variety of colored linings to indicate rank
Uniforms usually worn by officers Uniforms Guerrilla Warfare A shift in focus to the southern American states in 1778 resulted in a string of victories for the British
General Nathanael Greene engaged in guerrilla warfare and prevented them from making strategic headway Training and Strategies the army suffered significantly from a lack of an effective training regime, and largely inexperienced officers.
The inexperience was compensated for in part by some of the senior officers George Washington, Horatio Gates, Charles Lee, Richard Montgomery and Francis Marion
during their time in the Winter Quarters at Valley Forge they were relentlessly drilled and trained by Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, a veteran of the famed Prussian General Staff.
He taught the essentials of military discipline, drills, tactics and strategy, and wrote the Revolutionary War Drill Manual.
Once the Army left Valley Forge, they proved their ability to equally match the British troops in battle when they fought a successful strategic action at the Battle of Monmouth. Death Toll More than 25,000 American Revolutionaries died during active military service.
8,000 of these deaths were in battle; the other 17,000 recorded deaths were due to starvation or disease brought on by deplorable conditions. This tally of deaths from disease is undoubtedly too low
2,500 Americans died while encamped at Valley Forge in the winter of 1777–78 alone.
The number seriously wounded or disabled soldiers has been estimated from 8,500 to 25,000.
The total American military casualty figure was therefore as high as 50,000. The End!!! About 250,000 men served as regulars or as militiamen for the Revolutionary cause in the eight years of the war
There were never more than 90,000 men under arms at one time.
Most of the Continental Army was disbanded in 1783 after the Treaty of Paris ended the war.
A small residual force remained at West Point and some frontier outposts until Congress created the United States Army June 3, 1784. In Closing