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Sensation, Perception and Consciousness

Presentations of the biological basis of psychological function... includes study of sensation, perception, and consciousness.
by

Derek Miller

on 28 November 2016

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Transcript of Sensation, Perception and Consciousness

Sensation
Absolute
Difference
minimum stimulus needed for sensory detection
... half the time
it's the
just noticeable difference
, OR...
jnd
half the time
Weber's Law
Difference Threshold is governed by...
Signal-Detection Theory
Adaptation
Sensory
Habituation
... sense permanently adapts to stimulus, which raises the threshold of the sense...
*Sense "trained" to specific stimuli...
Problem: we may miss signals that we should pick up on, AND/OR we may detect signals not there...

Work through the chart, as you imagine that you anticipate your sugar booger calling...

Did your phone ACTUALLY ring? Did you MISS it??
Perception
Attentive Processes
Selective v. Divided Attention
Perceptual Organization
Figure-Ground Perception
Gestalt Principles of Grouping
Perceptual Interpretation
Perceptual Constancy
Depth Perception
Motion Perception
Perceptual Set
Topic: Perception
Page: R30
We will...
Describe general principles of organizing and integrating sensation to promote stable awareness of the external world (e.g. Gestalt principles, Depth perception); Describe how experience and culture can influence perceptual processes (e.g. perceptual set, context effects); Explain the role of top-down processing in producing vulnerability to illusion; Discuss the role of attention in behavior
Finish Perception Activities
Unit 5 Writing Three
Preview:
For the Preview on L30, answer the following question: "Is depth imborn or is it learned by experience? Why do you think this?"
"Connections" Page:
Perceptual "Collage"... Illustrations of Perceptual Principles
Note:
Chapter 5 Vocabulary due Mon./Tue., 12/5-12/6; Unit 5 Diagnostic Quiz 1 on Mon./Tue., 12/5-12/6
Consciousness
States v. Levels
Normal
Altered??
Circadian Rhythms
manages biological "clock"
Sleep and Dreams
Basic Characteristics:
Cyclical
Restorative
Necessary
Move in and out of STAGES
NR.E.M.
v.
R.E.M.
Why do We Dream?
"Royal Road to the Unconscious"
Manifest Content...
v.
Latent Content...
Problem-Solving (Cognitive) Theory
Activation-Synthesis Theory
(Hobson & McCarley, 1977)
Sleep Disorders
Insomnia
Narcolepsy
Sleep Apnea
Night Terrors
http://streaming.factsonfile.com/PortalViewVideo.aspx?xtid=40442&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title=Why Do We Dream?&IsSearch=N&parentSeriesID=
Bottom-Up or Top-Down Processing?
Sensation
Perception
Thresholds
Attention
Top-Down Processing...
Selective
Divided
Attention Blindness
Simon & Chambis (1999)
Selective Attention can lead to...
The Senses
Vision
Audition
Gustation
Olfaction
Tactile
Body Senses
Kinesthesis
Vestibular Sense
Synesthesia
When the Senses Mix
body parts positioning with rest of body and environment
controls sense of balance and equilibrium (controlled in inner ear)
What IS Perception?
"Whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
Discussion Point: How do these principles give evidence for top-down processing
Discussion Point: Nature/Nurture...Is depth perception inborn or learned?
The "Visual Cliff" Experiment
Gibson & Walk (1962)
Binocular
Cues
Monocular
Cues
Convergence
Retinal Disparity
Linear Perspective
Relative Size
Interposition
Relative Motion
Texture Gradient
The Phi Phenomenon
based on stroboscopic motion
Schemas
and experience
Context Effects
Size Constancy
Shape Constancy
Color Constancy
Turnball (1961)
Importance of experience and constancy
predisposition to see one thing and not another
Preview: On L29 for the Preview write a brief account of your levels of awareness and energy throughout the day (e.g. when are you most / least awake?, etc.)
At the time of the following dream, Doris S. was an 18-year-old woman living in a rural area. She was getting ready to graduate from high school and begin the long road toward a medical degree (she would have been the first child in her family to become a doctor) when she found out that she was pregnant. Her parents were not yet aware of the situation and she and her boyfriend were in the midst of deciding whether to try to arrange an abortion or to get married, though the latter option meant the end of her medical school aspirations. Beyond these rather unfortunate problems, Doris lived a very normal life and had never experienced serious psychological problems.
"I am at my friend Betty's house. I call Ann up to make an appointment to get my hair highlighted. I speak to the receptionist at the beauty parlor. I speak in a Russian accent. She asks when I can come. I say in a couple of days. I think that might be Wednesday. She asks 'Are you sure because we are changing things around here; implying that it won't be good if I change my mind and cancel the appointment. After speaking to her, I realize that I don't need to have my hair highlighted yet, because my hair hasn't grown out yet. But George and I go on the 'A' train to the beauty parlor. It goes through a neighborhood that I have never seen before. The train travels outside. George gets out at a stop as if he nonchalantly is doing something. The train leaves without him. I wave to him and feel bad that he is not on the train." (Ullman, 1986, p. 539).
Begins with...
which is either...
or
we ARE capable, but...
more divided, less focus
Perception begins with the SENSES...
Perception is product of
experience
+
expectations
+ senses
Is it a COW or something else?
Top-Down
Processing...
man playing sax
or
face of a woman?
Top-Down Processing...
did you see the 2nd "the"?
Each sense has...
Vision Example:
candlelight on a mountain 30 miles away
minimum DIFFERENCE in stimulus on sense to detect a change...
Stimulus must change in proportion to intensity of current stimulus to be felt
Ex: boy will detect a difference if enough weight is added or subtracted
let's shift our focus to Perception, and see that as each sense has Thresholds, different types of Attention are important to Perception...
Carefully watch
the video...
... miss OBVIOUS things, like a guy
in an ape suit :)
Watch the video to see one example of the perils of dividing our attention...
cell/smart phone has distinct ring tone that grabs your attention...
...different way of understanding sensory thresholds
As sense is stimulated repeatedly, it adapts and the physical response lessens (adapts), BUT...
Ex. Getting used to COLD water
... too much stimulation over time leads to...
Ex. overexposure to loud sound leads to physical hearing loss
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/mechanics-of-hearing.html#lesson
Click the link for an overview of how hearing works...
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/taste-touch-and-smell.html#lesson
Click on the following to learn more about taste and smell...
Click here to learn more about the senses...
Trichromatic Theory
Cone photoreceptors "tuned" to one of three primary colors...
red
/
green
/
blue
HOW is it we see color??
Opponent-Process Theory
Try this out...
When cones "tuned" to certain color fire, opponent color cone is inhibited...
Evidenced by appearance of AFTERIMAGES
What do images on the retina look like??
https://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chvision.html
Click below for a demo of your 'blind spot':
Top-down processing
OR
Bottom-up processing?
Selective Attention can also lead to...
Change Blindness
Full transcript