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Summer Unit Six Global Entertainment

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Ginny Whitehouse

on 5 December 2018

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Transcript of Summer Unit Six Global Entertainment

Global Media
Differences in Libel Law
Prior Restraint in the U.S.
Your text talkabout Near v. Minnesota (1931)
Under this 1931 ruling, the government can only restrain speech in case of:
Communications hinder war effort
Publication of troop movements
Incitements to acts of violence
Key Distinctives:
Gov't media ownership
Tension between stuffy and bawdy
Greater media restrictions
Greater cynicism about gov't
Key distinctives of Indian Cinema:
Past interweaves with present
Seeking justice
Encourages nationalism
Film as immersion experience
Influence on Hollywood

What makes good
motion media?

Americans were quite unwilling to enter World War II after the brutal War to End All Wars in Europe. Filmmakers were called in to help with the war effort. Legendary Frank Capra produced the Why we Fight series and Disney produced the second film you will see here. The first runs about five minutes and the second about 10 minutes. Because your Discussion Board responses are going to be based on them, you will want to see them in their entirety. Think about these questions as you watch.

1. How were movies used to help Americans become more comfortable with entering World War II?

2. How were Germans and Japanese portrayed as less than human?
Film in World War II
Studies show a critically acclaimed film is most likely:
An R-rated drama
Adapted from a prize-winning play or book and based on a true story with the original author or director involved in writing the screenplay
NOT a sequel, comedy, musical, summer release, big budget project
What makes a great film?
Industry Picks for Top Movies Ever
This week we are talking about Global Media:
What's the difference between authentic vs. mediatied performances
What makes a great motion picture
How the media industries in China and India evolved
Before mass media, all performances had to be authentic because they were all "live." Once images could be recorded, then came the advent of mediated images .... So if you see a concert live, then it's authentic. Look at the following Bon Jovi videos and decide which you prefer. Would you rather watch the authentic performance from the top of the stadium or the mediated edited for MTV version?
When the lines between reality and fiction blur so you can't tell the difference anymore.
Pay attention to the woman dancing in the middle. Also, consider, who is this performance really for? Flash mobs are great examples of hyperreality: What is real and performance blurs and merges.
Let's look at a little bit of film history. Nanook of the North, a 1922 silent film, was the first full-length documentary. Stick with it till everybody gets out of the canoe.
This 1926 Douglas Fairbanks movie, The Black Pirate, was the first to be shot entirely in technicolor. Watch a few minutes of this clip and of each of the next few examples.
Watch a short bit of the next two clips from the Jazz Singer, released in 1927 as the first talkie. Theater-goers apparently kept looking around trying to find who was singling. The second clip has strong racist overtones due to the black-faced Al Jolson.
Steamboat Willie was the first widely distributed animated film and released in 1928.
Frank Zukor changed the way people thought about the film industry. Read more in your text about his key accomplishments.
Take a break here and respond to the first Discussion Board questions. What did these movies say to you? What kind of propaganda do we see today? How do you see similar techniques used against immigrants now?
Now let's check out media around world.
We'll focus on China and India in the Prezi,
while your text talks a lot about the Middle East and other parts of the world.
When we think of China, we often thing of ...
But authoritarianism shows up in lots of places. Remember the European idea about the divine right of kings?
And of course we think of Islamic authoritarianism in some Middle Eastern countries.
Pay attention to the Al Jazeera section in your text. That news source tries to address authoritarianism in the Muslim world. It's based largely in Qatar.
And yes, even in the U.S. we experience authoritarianism for folks who have different viewpoints than the mainstream. Here are images from Occupy Wall Street and Ferguson, Missouri.
At the same time, Americans do value free speech and want other people around the world to have access to information. Check out VOA in your text.
China however limits access to everything. Facebook and Twitter are not allowed through what is called the Great Firewall. China has its own heavily monitored internet system called CN2 or Next Carry Network. Under the Emergency Response Law, China can shut down any communication stream in times of crisis to maintain social stability. (See your text for more.)

Do you know who this man is standing in front of the tank?
If you don't, know that most Chinese people don't either. In 1989, battle-equipped tanks rolled into Beijing in the days leading up to the Tiananmen Square Massacre. In the late night and early morning hours of June 3 and 4, those tanks shot down and rolled over the thousands of protesters gathered in the square and turned their bodies into what Toronto Globe reporter Jan Wong would describe as “hamburger.” The clean-up was swift and thorough: No photographs ever surfaced, and an exact body count was never announced. Foreign journalists, who had been blocked from areas where most of the killings occurred, scoped from any vantage point they could gain, often from hotel windows. Tanks were still patrolling on the morning of June 5 when a 20-tank column rolled down Changan Avenue away from the Square and toward the Beijing Hotel.
A lone man in a white shirt carrying shopping bags stepped in front of the line of tanks. Ammunition whizzed past the CNN video crew’s perch on top of the hotel and the crew locked down their cameras to focus on the man and the tank, then took for cover inside. Still photographers lay flat on the balcony. The CNN crew heard the tanks rolling farther down the street, retrieved the cameras, and scrambled to get out of the hotel. Anticipating the police, they stuffed their equipment down into duffel bags, carried them out like tourists. Only later were they able to view the video and grasp its significance. High-speed transmissions were not yet available; they sent the images out electronically frame by frame for hours.
TIME magazine named “The Unknown Rebel” one of the 20 Most Influential Leaders and Revolutionaries of the 20th Century, along with Mahatma Gandhi and Mao Zedong.

But his image is only iconic outside China. Two decades later, the events of Tiananmen Square are among the list of domestic issues effectively blocked from Chinese public discourse, along with the practice of Falun Gong and the question of Tibet’s sovereignty. The power of Tank Man’s image is evident in the lengths still undertaken to suppress it. China’s extensive and sophisticated Internet filtering systems, dubbed ‘The Great Firewall of China’, until recently effectively blocked electronic discussion and reporting by requiring Internet service providers, including Google and Yahoo!, to filter searches on key words.

On the 20th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square, the crackdown on images intensified. Twitter, Flickr, and major email servers were blocked that day; YouTube was blocked for months prior; and international news appeared on Internet café screens but only as long as events in China were not mentioned.On June 3, 2009, officials allowed CNN crews to enter the square but sent plainclothes police officers to block the cameras.
The effort to censor was highly successful. Compare the images of the street where Tank Man appeared then again at the exact same time 20 years later.
Guess who provided China with all that survelliance equipment?
To learn more about Tank Man, watch this incredible documentary by Frontline. It runs over an hour. You certainly aren't required to watch it but it is engaging and worth your time. Save the link for later. Write about what you learned from the documentary on the Discussion Board and you may earn five points extra credit.
The Bollywood movie industry is by far one of the largest film industries in the world. On an average, it produces more than 800 feature films and over one thousand short films annually. The name comes from combining the original name of Mumbai, Bombay, with Hollywood. Notably though, India developed its film industry on its own. Producers love making Bollywood movies simply because there are millions of millions of movie enthusiasts in India. Movie tickets here are the cheapest in the world. As demand and popularity of Bollywood movies grow within India and internationally, Bollywood production companies have increased their production spending to keep pace with the demands from the audience for better movies with more special effects and more exotic locations.
The characteristics that came to define Bollywood also gave it a quality of nationalism: of representing India as a whole and not speaking to just one religious group, language, geographical area, or caste.

One of these characteristics was the choice, early on, to use the Hindi language as the language of Bollywood films. Hundreds of languages are spoken in India, and Hindi was not even one of the common ones in Bombay at the time talking films arose. Hindi was chosen because it was common as a trade language; most people knew some of it or could understand it because it was similar to their own dialect. When Hindi became the national language years later, this only increased the sense of nationalism in film.

Another characteristic lending to the feeling of a unified nation of India via Bollywood is the eclecticism of the music used. From the beginning, the music created for the films incorporated styles from various traditions—both North Indian and Carnatic classical, light classical, religious, and folk music. A third characteristic is the world of the Bollywood film stars. In this world, Muslims marry Hindus, Hindus marry Christians, and people from different societal classes can succeed and collaborate.
The first films India watched were not made in Bollywood. The Lumiere Brothers had just opened a successful movie house in Paris. In 1896, thanks to the country’s colonial rulers, the Lumiere Brothers introduced the art of cinema to the sub-continent. Bombay, as it was then called, was the first Indian city to screen short films.
The first Indian-made film was produced in 1913 and had a heavy emphasis on Hindu religious themes. Watch just a minute to get a feel for it.
Documentary "High Tech, Low Life" is already winning awards internationally. Watch the trailor
The British government's control of India impacted the film industry big time. When the British were still in control, certain themes about Indian freedom could of course not be included. But even after India’s independence from Britain that censorship had already had an impact. Sex was roundly forbidden, including any “blatant physical contact” suggesting it, such as kissing. Exaggerated body language replaced these things and became the norm, such as bumping shoulders between two romantic leads or keeping faces very close without touching. The dialogue also reflected the compensation for the missing sexuality. Most importantly, though, the songs took over the expression of love.

See if you can find the three main traits of Bollywood film in the next few clips. You only need to watch the first couple of minutes of each:

Really dramatic but controlled emotions, what may look like overacting with long glances
Really emotional dialogue and songs, which might even seem corny
Songs and dances that seem to come out of nowhere
Those same traits show up in comedy. Here is the trailer for a Bollywood move released in April 2017. How is this both similar and quite different from Hollywood?
Slumdog Millionaire won Best Picture Oscar after its release in 2008. However, it is not a Bollywood, but a British film. Like other films that win awards, it was based on the book Q&A by Vikas Swarup. Interestingly, it won the all sorts of awards for drama, cinematography, and directing, but no international awards for acting. Why do you think that was so?

As you watch the trailer, pay attention to the traits we mentioned earlier:
Really dramatic but controlled emotions with long glances
Really emotional dialogue and songs
Songs and dances that seem to come out of nowhere
But even the U.S. has authoritarian
media ...
The 25th anniversary of Tiananmen Square went largely unnoticed around the world.
For your last Discussion Board post, check out Indian Cinema for yourself. We've covered a lot of ground and you have done a great job!
Write these points down.
How is this epic action movie similar and different from Hollywood?
Indian cinema however is not all in Hindi and it is more than Bollywood. Check out Marathi Cinema, which is known for its romance.
Mughai E Azam (Great Mughal) is among the top ten Bollywood films every made, and the most expensive of its time. Released in 1960, people stood line all day to get tickets. Watch the trailer then we will talk about why.
Here is one of the most famous dance scene from the movie. It is designed to be emersive and spiritual. Consider how it is also timeless.
Well that was disturbing. Movies are not the only form of propaganda, nor did it stop with World War 2. The U.S. Border Patrol produced this song that was aired across Mexican and Central American radio. Listen and see what it was designed to stop.
Meanwhile, Russian troll hackers have repeatedly been accused of messing with the U.S. 2016 presidential elections ... not just against Hillary Clinton, but also against Mario Rubio, who took a strong anti-Russia position. The campaign even has name: dezinformatsiya. During the U.S. election, Russia operatives "left behind more clues and more traces than ever before," according to Thomas Rid, a professor in the Department of War Studies at King's College London.

The Guardian reports that even now hundreds of Russian bloggers are dropping pro-Putin propaganda on web sites world wide.
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