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Words Their Way: Chapter 4

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Kay Hoffmann

on 30 March 2015

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Transcript of Words Their Way: Chapter 4

Matching Units from Speech to Print:

1. The Global Level
- "Musical" intonations
-Direct oral language vs. Indirect written language

2. The Word Level
-Learning to recognize the difference between oral and written words.
-No clear separable units in speech.

3. Sounds in Words
Connecting letters sounds to letter symbols
-"This is the basis for the alphabetic principle, which is essential for learning to read and spell English."
Pretend Reading
to paraphrase or spontaneously retelling.
Memory Reading
accurate retelling while pointing to the print.
Concept of Word
Emergent Readers
Support for Emergent Reading and Writing
"Students must have many opportunities to see and experiment with written language...even if this writing is little more than scribbles."
The Literacy Diet
Six Main Components for Learning to Read:
1. Oral language, concepts and vocabulary.
2. Phonological Awareness (PA)
3. Alphabet knowledge
4. Letter-Sound knowledge
5. Concepts about print (CAP)
6. Concept of words in text (COW)

If used daily, regardless of student's placement on the emergent continuum, conventional reading and writing will follow.
Emergent Writers
First Task: Recognize that scibbles can have meaning.
Differentiating from drawing and writing.
Mock Linear
- pretend writing that starts with the linear arrangement of print.
Focus on
parts of speech: single consonants as whole syllables

Three Stages of Emergent Writing:
- holding writing utensil, scribbles, representational drawing.
- Top-to-Bottom linear arrangement, letter-like forms, "Letter Salad'
- using letters to represent speech in a systematic way- requires
phonemic awareness

Kayla Hoffmann
Chapter 4: Emergent Stage Learners
Emergent Reader Support: "Reading To" vs. "Reading With"
Interactive Read-Alouds
: promote oral language discussion (touchstone texts), discuss concepts related to ideas, content, or genres of the book.
Shared Reading
: use of enlarged texts in which children can see the print and join along. (Particularly powerful).
print referencing ( Concepts about Print [CAP])
Whole-to-Part Model-
begins with shared reading of rhymes and jingles, then proceeds to individual parts.
Sentence Pocket Strips
Sorting Pictures and Sounds

GAME: Who can Find?
Emergent Writing Support
"Fundamental Graphic Act- Irresistible act of self-fulfillment."

Provide incentive for learning to write!

- To offer support teachers should:
Provide ready access to writing utensils and materials.
Model how to use writing in centers and pretend play.
Provide visual models of forms and functions of print.
Provide journals and opportunities to use them.
Encourage written observations, thoughts and feelings, and predictions for upcoming events.
"The ownership that comes with having one's own experiences recorded in print is a powerful incentive to explore the world of written language."
Writing Game: Caption This!
Selecting Target Words:
: Can the words be used regularly in the classroom?
: Can the words be acted out? (Ex: "hustle") or are they abstract concepts? (Ex: imagined)
Repetition in Texts
: Are they used more than once in the story, or throughout the class?
Thematic or Topical Relatedness
: Can the words be clustered into the same semantic category? (Ex: buds, blooms, blossoms)
Oral Language, Concepts and Vocabulary
Interactive Read-Alouds:

provide background and conceptual knowledge.
Make use of many different genres to teach different concepts.
New words should be defined clearly and repeated several times.
Experiences and Conversation
: Intentional experiences and conversations planned around conceptual read-alouds.
Planned Extensions
Retellings and Dramatic Play
Concept Sorts
: compare-and-contrast system to develop concepts and relationships.
"Develop deeper understanding about words and how they relate to other words within a semantic field."
Phonological Awareness (PA)
"The ability to pat attention to, identify, and reflect on various sound segments of speech."

Early- focus on syllables and rhyming words.
Middle- focus on alliteration
Syllables and Words
: Children as concrete thinkers.
First step to teaching multi-syllabic words is to create an awareness of words as a unit to create longer words. (Ex: "Snow" + "man"= "Snowman"
Alphabet Knowledge
"Print is one of the few things in life in which direction makes a difference."
Students must be able to recognize letters regardless of font or size.
Students must learn the name of letters and the sounds associated with them.

The average middle-class student has five years of preliminary alphabet knowledge before reaching kindergarten.
- Other students may require more focused instruction.
Letter Sound Knowledge
Toward the end of the Emergent Stage, students should be making partial phonetic spellings of at least two letters per syllable.
Many teachers begin with S or M as beginning consonant contrasts for their ability to be elongated.
Letters such as B and P can be confusing because they are articulated the same way.
Letter articulation explains many students' invented spellings.
EX: JP=chip, VN=fan
Use knowledge of articulation to determine letter sorts. (Table 4.2; pg. 112)
Concepts about Print (CAP)
"Children need adults to talk about the purposes print serves and the special ways in which the visual forms of print are organized. "

Print Referencing
: Explicitly referencing print at every opportunity, and explaining its importance and purpose.
Read-alouds, dramatic play, etc.

Concepts of Word in Text (COW)
"The ability to fingerpoint (track) accurately to print words in text while reading from memory."
Occurs in a developmental continuum
Depends on the student's ability to activate letter-sound correspondence and isolate beginning consonant sounds.
Developing, Rudimentary, Firm levels

A student at the Firm level is no longer considered to be in the Emergent stage.
Literacy Diet
Table of Contents
Characteristics of Emergent Readers and Writers
Support for Emergent Readers and Writers
The Literacy Diet
Language Experience Approach
Routines and Management
Assessing and Monitoring Vocabulary Growth
- Retelling and Concept Sorts
- Note increases in word use or tally ideas, facts, or concepts expressed in the Retelling and Concept Sorts
- Note the number of objects correctly sorted into conceptual categories.
-Close ended, or yes/no questions regarding content area.
Rhymes and Alliteration
Rhymes, Jingles, and Songs: Rhyming book read-alouds, rhyming sort extensions, "Bingo" and other rhyming songs.
May be difficult to learn for English learners.
Alliteration: It is important for children to understand literacy terminology ("What sound does 'cow' start with?
Focuses attention on beginning sounds
Supports separation of the speech stream
I-Spy, ABC by Dr. Suess, Puppets
Assessing and Monitoring PA
Rhyme: Identify the "oddball" in a set of rhyming words.

Alliteration: Beginning Sounds Assessment- alliterative matching task using pictures.

Used to identify students who require extra attention.
Teaching the Alphabet
The alphabet is learned through active exploration of letter name, letter sounds, visual characteristics, and written movement.
Most beginning activities begin with the child's name.
Daily sing the alphabet song
Alphabet books to explore upper and lower case
Point out letters outside the classroom
Create an "Alphabet Center" with alphabet games, puzzles, and art supplies
Provide a variety of ways and opportunities to CREATE letters
Assessing and Monitoring Alphabet Knowledge
Point and recite letters
Do the students differentiate between L,M,N,O,P
Can the students differentiate between upper and lower case letters?
Call out letters out of order for the students to write.

Online Alphabet Games:

Beginning Sounds Picture Sorts
Begin with meaningful text
Differentiate difficulty of sorts
Begin teacher-directed
Use sets of pictures that are easy to sort
Correct mistakes immediately on the first, but address mistakes later on subsequent sorts
Vary the sorting activities
Allow plenty of time
Plan follow-up activities
Encourage pretend writing and invented spelling
Assessing and Monitoring Letter Sound Knowledge
Observe invented spelling efforts
Formal Assessments:
Emergent Class Records
Beginning Consonant Sounds and Letters Assessment
Kindergarten Spelling Inventory
Primary Spelling Inventory

Students should be formally assessed AT LEAST three times a year.
Students with focused instructional interventions should be monitored more frequently.
Assessing and Monitoring Concepts about Print
Ask a series of questions while sharing a book.
Some state standards provide a checklist of questions.
"Who can point to the Letter
?" or "What we do we put at the end of each sentence?"
About the COW
Developing COW
- students understand moving from top to bottom, but maybe not left to right.
Rudimentary COW
- The ability to recognize that in order to point at the word "man" correctly, the student needs to point at a word that begins with "m."
Will remember a few written words.
Fingerpoint Reading and Tracking Words
- have students point to the word as they reread memorized texts and draw attention to letters and sounds.
- record what children say, and read it back.
Language Experience Approach

Rhymes for Reading
- memorize rhymes, use picture prompts, call on students to fingerpoint individually, then point at individual words.
Assessing and Monitoring COW Growth
Ask students to point to individual words in a familiar text.
Observe how children point to words.
Ask students to name the words they are pointing to.
Do they need to reread the whole line to remember the word?
Ask how the word was found.
Language Experience Approach (LEA)
"What one says can be written, what one has written can be read."
Teacher records student dictation as closely as possible.
Students should be allowed to correct and edit dictations.
1. Plan a hands-on experience
2. Students dictate account and observations about experience
3. Students reread account
4. Students receive copy of their account to illustrate and use for practice.
Routines and Management
The comprehensive approach (using the Literacy Diet) is the most effective approach to instruction for the Emergent Literacy student.

Time Units:
1. Read To
2. Read With
3. Write With
4. Word Study
5. Talk With

Should include whole group, small group, and literacy centers.
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