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Scaffolding in Action

Module for Math & Science Methods classes

Cynthia Carlson

on 29 October 2015

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Transcript of Scaffolding in Action

Scaffolding in Action
ELL Module
Project Mast2er
Office of Sponsored Programs
SUNY Fredonia
C. Carlson

Bai Bureh en di Hut Tax War
Do we know about accommodations?
Should we provide accommodations?
Why? Hut Tax War
WHat? Accommodations
Questions & Issues
How? Recommendations
Abrams Memo
NYS current accommodations by state test
Questions & issues raised by Abedi
Modification/scaffolding of test itself
Universal design
Modifications in testing procedure
...the inclusion of limited English proficient students, who shall be assessed in a valid and reliable manner and provided reasonable accommodations on assessments, ... including, to the extent practicable, assessments in the language and form most likely to yield accurate data on what such students know and can do in academic content areas ...
From Abedi, 2004.
When we look for answers to those questions in studies of content area assessments, we are confronted with a striking lack of empirical research.
Title 1 Section 1111(b)(3)(C)(9)(III) of NCLB:
State assessments must provide for...
Question dem:
1. Wetin na chief in name weh bin de fet di Britis?
2. Udat get good rifles for fet?
3. Omos tem di battle dem with Bai Bureh bin teh?
4. Usai dem bin send Bai Bureh after dem bin catch em?
...accessible and valid with respect to the widest possible range of students, including students with disabilities and students with limited English proficiency.
Title 1 Section 200.2(b)(2) of NCLB:
State assessments must be designed to be...
Extra Time: 65% of states
Small Group Administration: 59% of states
Individual Administration: 53% of states
Other: Separate Location, Carrels, More Breaks: 7% of states
Bilingual Dictionary, Glossary, or Word List: 43% of states
Translated Version: 22% of states
Bilingual Version: 8% of states
Sheltered English version: 4% of states
(Abedi, 2004)
Types of Assessment Accommodations
1. Reduce the impact of language factors
Performance gap increases as linguistic complexity increases (Butler & Stevens, 1997)
So reducing linguistic complexity has strong effect (Abedi et al, 2004)
2. Level the playing field
Find ways to improve performance of ELLs at higher rate than native speakers
This will reduce the gap
3. Help students access the content
Sheltered Instruction
Native Language support
4. Allow students to demonstrate what they know
Modification of test itself
Modification of the testing procedure
Many accommodations improved performance of both ELs AND native speakers of English,
but only a few actually narrowed the gap
Translated tests not highly effective
Different accommodations effective with different learners
Reducing linguistic complexity (parallel items with same content)
shown to be one of the most effective accommodations,
but is rarely used.
Oral accommodations (i.e. test-read)
preferred by students and teachers,
but so far- only preliminary research
Dictionaries raise scores,
but only when ELLs are self reported “good” readers
Customized glossaries are effective
margin notes + extra time are beneficial for ELLs and native speakers
Customized end note dictionaries actually narrowed gap
Computer testing with “pop- up” glossaries effective
From Abedi, 2004.
We should use accommodations that work improve performance for ELs, but do not affect performance of other students
Some accommodations are just effective practice and should be used with all students
Universal Design is an example of guidelines that were development for Special Education, but should be applied in all cases
Narrowing the Gap
“Translating test items from English into other language does not appear to be an effective accommodation strategy when students have studied the subject in a classroom where English is used. The language of instruction should match the students’ primary language of instruction.” (Abedi, 2004)
Translating Tests
Generally language of tests should match language of instruction. (Exception might be newcomers)
EL accommodations should be considered on a case-by-case basis, taking into account background factors such as English reading proficiency, prior schooling, and length of time in the U.S.
“Some accommodations are more effective with certain groups than with others, depending on background factors such as English reading proficiency and length of time in the United States.” Abedi (2004)
Learner Variation
All students should have content-area assessments that have clear language, so they can show what they know.
Modifying complex language without changing content should be done whenever possible.
“The performance gap between ELs and other students has been narrowed by modifying the language of test items to reduce the use of low-frequency vocabulary and complex language structures that are incidental to the content knowledge being assessed. This accommodation strategy is effective: it is also valid, because it does not appear to affect the performance of English-proficient students.”

Abedi (2004)
Complex Language
Customized glossaries are effective
Margin notes (+ extra time!) are beneficial for ELLs and native speakers
Customized end note dictionaries actually narrowed gap
Computer testing with “pop- up” glossaries effective
Can be provided for all students, regardless of their English proficiency
“Customized dictionaries can be an effective and valid alternative to commercial dictionaries; they have been found to help ELs while not affecting the scores of English-proficient students.” (Abedi, 2004)
Dictionaries raise scores only when ELLs are self reported “good” readers.
Valid & reliable
Language & form
Accessible & valid
Help students access content
Allow them to demonstrate what they know
ELs in ESL program
ELs w/IEPs
Exited students

Time Extension: Schools may extend the test time for LEP students. Principals may use any reasonable extensions, such as "time and a half" (the required testing time plus one-half of that amount of time), in accordance with their best judgment about the needs of the LEP students. Principals should consult with each student's classroom teacher in making these determinations.

Separate Location: Schools are encouraged to provide optimum testing environment and facilities for LEP students. They may administer State tests to LEP students individually or in small groups in a separate location.

Bilingual Dictionaries and Glossaries: LEP students may use bilingual dictionaries and glossaries when taking these examinations. The bilingual dictionaries and glossaries may provide only direct translations of words. Bilingual dictionaries or glossaries that provide definitions or explanations are not permitted.
Third Reading of Listening Sections: On ELA and English Regents exams, a third reading of listening sections may be administered.

Simultaneous Use of English and Alternative Language Editions: For examinations other than the ELA or English Regents, LEP students may use both an English and an alternative language edition of the test simultaneously. However, they should be carefully instructed to record all of their responses in only one of the two editions. The alternative language edition used by the student should be so indicated on the student's answer document.

Oral Translation for Lower Incidence Languages: Schools may provide LEP students with an oral translation of these examinations when there is no translated edition provided by the Department. All translations must be oral, direct translations of the English editions; written translations are not allowed. No clarifications or explanations may be provided. The translator should receive a copy of the English edition of the test one hour prior to administration. The Department's Office of Bilingual Education and the Bilingual Education Technical Assistance Centers (BETACs) can assist schools in locating suitable translators.

Writing Responses in the Native Language: LEP students making use of alternative language editions or of oral translations of these examinations may write their responses to the open-ended questions in their native language. Scoring the tests is the responsibility of the school. However, the Department's Office of Bilingual Education and the Bilingual Education Technical Assistance Centers (BETACs) can assist schools in locating persons who can translate the students' responses into English to facilitate scoring of the answer papers.

NYS Board of Regents Policy
Approved 9/15/08
NYS ESL Testing Accommodations
Memo from David Abrams to
Superintendents & Principals in NYS
Testing accommodations may be extended to former ELs for up to 2 years
Reminder of accommodations allowed
NYS State Policy
Does using accommodations yield more valid inferences about an English learner’s knowledge?
Which students should be eligible and what criteria should be used to determine their eligibility?
What type of accommodations should be used?
Are some accommodations more effective than others-and if so, are they more effective in general or only for particular learners learners?
Do accommodations give students who receive them an unfair advantage?
Is it meaningful to compare English learners accommodated scores with English proficient students non-accommodated scores?
What implications do do test accommodations have for test administration and testing policy more generally?
Questions & Issues
Abedi's Research Questions
Accommodation Goals
NCLB Policy
Do ELs need accommodations?
From Abedi's seminal research, 2004.
Research Finding:
Research Findings:
Research-based recommendations:
Research Findings:
Oral accommodations (i.e. test-read) show student preference only so far- preliminary research
Test Read
When possible, test-read should be offered to students on assessments.
Increasing interaction in class through cooperative learning or creating authentic contexts for practice is encouraged.
Research Findings:
Research Findings:
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