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English/Anglo America (1607-1750)

Chapters 2/3/4 of Foner (pg. 52-169)
by

Britt Christensen

on 8 September 2016

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Transcript of English/Anglo America (1607-1750)

English/Anglo America (1607-1750)
Jamestown (1607)
Relations with Native Americans
Women and the Family
The Virginia Company
John Smith
A Tobacco Colony
Poor location-swamp, diseased water
1616-80% of original immigrants were dead
Saved by tobacco and military discipline

"He who will not work, shall not eat."
-Jamestown had been settled by rich men unaccustomed to work
-He was forced to return to England in 1609, but harsh rule continued
Announced new policies and priorities in 1618...
1) Abandon search for gold
2) Grow own food
3) Find marketable commodity to sell
4) Attract more settlers
Headright system-
50 acres of land to any colonist who paid for his own or another's passage
-First two years were mostly peaceful-give and take
-Relationships began to deteriorate in 1610
-Uprising of 1622:
-Natives killed 25% of settler population
-Policy became focused on expelling the "savages" to gain control of land
-Introduced by John Rolfe
-Became Virginia's GOLD
-Increased the demand for field labor
-Created a new social structure
1) Wealthy landowners
2) Small farmers
3) Poor servants
Because the majority of the first settlers were men, Virginia lacked a stable family life.
Women enjoyed some rights, but most faced a life of hard labor as indentured servants.
The Maryland Experiment (1632)
Formed as a proprietary colony-a grant of land and governmental authority to one person
(Cecilius Calvert-son of King Charles I)
Charter guaranteed liberties to colonists
-Like Virginia, depended upon tobacco
-Calvert hoped Protestants and Catholics could live together
-High death rate, but greater chance for land ownership
With the people sitting near you, create a list of the 5 most significant objectives specified in "Instructions for the Virginia Company."
"City Upon a Hill"
John Winthrop (1630)
Discussion Questions:
1. Over time, this speech has become known as the “city upon a hill” speech. What is the meaning of the phrase “city upon a hill?”
2. What were the main ideas of John Winthrop’s speech?
3. According to John Winthrop, what had to happen in order for the endeavor to be a success? Do you agree with Winthrop and do you believe this actually occurred?
4. Why do you believe other politicians throughout history have made reference to this idea of America being a “city upon a hill?”
5. Do we as a nation still hold onto the idea of “America exceptionalism?” Is this realistic or simply a sign of unrealistic beliefs about our nation’s superiority?

Plymouth (1620)
Mayflower Compact-first written frame of government in the U.S.
"The Great Migration"
Puritan Women
Government and Society
Puritan Liberties
New England Puritans
"Moral liberty:" Escaping religious persecution, moral corruption
"Liberty to only that which is good"
Restraints on freedoms
Elected officials
Adult men agreed to obey "just and equal laws" enacted by elected representatives
Massachusetts Bay Company (1629)-formed to bring people to the colonies and turn a profit through trade with the Natives
Most settlers arrived as families
More prosperous than Virginia or Maryland
Population grew rapidly
Responsibilities as wives and mothers
Expected to embrace authority of husbands
Organized self-governing towns
Each town had its own Church and school
Harvard College (1636)-established to train ministers
Goal-prevent non-Puritan influence
Principle of consent, but not equality
"Some must be rich and some poor, some high and eminent in power and dignity; others mean and in subjection."
Inequality was God''s will and liberty depended upon one's social order
Making Predictions:
1) What challenges do you anticipate will arise in Puritan society?
2) How would the Puritans view present day society-values, beliefs, government, structure, etc?
By the mid-17th century, some Puritan leaders began to worry about growing commercialism and a decline in piety.
Believed the people of New England were forgetting the values of Puritanism.
Half-Way Covenant (1662)
Baptism and "half way" membership of 3rd generation (and on) individuals in order to protect the purity of the Church
Roger Williams
New Englanders Divided
Anne Hutchinson
"Liberty of conscious" = separation of church and state
Freedom to worship individually
"Where Religion and Profit Jump Together"
-Work for profit
-Remember needs of community
-Fishing, timber, family farms
-Differed from Chesapeake

The meaning of "freedom" would continue to dominate conversation in England and the colonies.
Mercantilism
Realization:
-Colonies could be a major source of wealth for England
Effect: Government regulation of the economy
Shift in Focus:
Business and commerce
King Philip's War
Bacon's Rebellion
Salem Witch Trials
Great Awakening
John Peter Zenger
Tension between colonists and natives
Class tensions in the colonies
Highlighted Puritan intolerance
Weakened the control of the Puritans
Encouraged religious toleration
Loosening of ties between Church and state
The foundation of 1st amendment rights
What is the significance of ALL of these events when considered TOGETHER?????
(Massachusetts Bay Colony)
An Empire of Freedom
18th century Great Britain believed itself to be the world's most advanced and freest nation and empire
How have the actions contradicted this belief?
Naval and commercial power
Strong government
Large population
Common law
Devotion to Protestantism
-Saw liberty as a uniquely British "possession."
-Rule of Law: Obey laws one consented to (through representation)
-"Rights of Englishmen" applied to men in the colonies (but not ALL men)
Until the 1770s, most colonists believed they were part of the freest political system ever created.
"Only virtuous people are capable of freedom."
-Who was considered to be "virtuous"?
John Locke
-"Social contract"


-Natural rights (life, liberty, property) should be protected from state

Key Idea:
Re-defining "Freedom"
Colonial Government
The Right to Vote
"Those who shall choose the lawmakers shall be men freed from dependance on others."
"Salutary Neglect"
British government allowed colonies to govern themselves
The Colonial Press
Nearly 75% of the male population was literate!
Freedom of Expression
British government feared free exchange of info in colonies
The Enlightenment
The Great Awakening
Stressed religion as an emotional, not intellectual, set of beliefs
Voters=adult, white males; most officials were upper class
What will be the results of this policy?
Letters, speeches, newspapers, articles, pamphlets, libraries, etc.
John Peter Zenger and freedom of the press
Stressed reason, liberty, individualism, religious freedom, natural rights
Ideas would influence the founding fathers, especially Jefferson as he wrote the Declaration of Independence
Significance:
-Separation of religion, business, government
-Encouraged more power, freedom for the common people
Expanding views on independence and freedom
Proclamation of 1763
Prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains
Act was basically ignored and actually worsened settler/Native American relations
When and why was this image created? By whom?
Benjamin Franklin (1754)
To encourage the colonies to join Britain in the fight against the French and Natives
In what ways did the French and Indian War alter the political, economical, and ideological relations between Britain and its American colonies?

Seven Years' War DBQ:
Did not rely on slaves
More equal wealth
Trade (not tobacco)
Goal:
National power
Not acquiring land and territory
Struggle between Natives, colonists
Poor farmers vs. government
Accusations against the outspoken
Religious rebirth (1740s)
Journalist accused of sedition
The French Empire
Based on trade
French and British traders competed for alliances with Natives
France had more land, but Britain had more population
French, British, and Natives struggled for control of the Ohio Valley region
Majority of Native tribes joined the French....why?
Treaty of Paris (1763)
Britain gains control of Canada, Florida
Spain acquires Philippines, Guam, Louisiana colony
All land east of Mississippi in British hands
How would Native Americans feel about the increased British presence in North America?
Pontiac's Rebellion (1763)
Some rights are surrendered for protection under the rule of law
How will this contribute to growing "colonial identity?"
Mercantilism
Focus on trade and accumulation of resources and wealth
(1632-1704)
Irony:
BUT Calvert did not believe ordinary people should play a role in government
Quick Read:
What was Nat Bacon's Rebellion?
Read the overview of Nat Bacon's Rebellion and be prepared to discuss the causes and effects of the rebellion and how this rebellion was a sign of difficult challenges facing the colonies.
"City Upon a Hill"
(1700s)
1. Over time, this speech has become known as the “city upon a hill” speech. What is the meaning of the phrase “city upon a hill?
2. What are the main ideas of John Winthrop's speech? How do the objectives in this speech differ from those in "Instructions for the Virginia Colony"?
3. According to John Winthrop, what had to happen in order for the endeavor to be a success?
Do you agree with Winthrop and do you believe this actually occurred?
4. Why do you believe politicians throughout history have continued to refer to the United States as a "city upon a hill"?
5. Do we as a nation still hold onto the idea of “America exceptionalism?” Is this realistic or simply a sign of unrealistic beliefs about our nation’s superiority?
King Philip's War
Bacon's Rebellion
Salem Witch Trials
Great Awakening
John Peter Zenger
Summarize the Event
Explain HOW the event symbolized either the growing tensions in the colonies OR the large scale changes facing the colonies heading towards the Revolution
Plus, the British government had allowed the colonial governments a large amount of freedom.
(Enlightenment)
The Right to Vote
"Salutary Neglect"
The Colonial Press
Freedom of Expression
American Enlightenment
The Great Awakening
DBQ Practice:
Ship Manifests
In a group of 3-4, analyze the documents and answer the questions on EACH side.
DBQ Practice:
New England vs. Chesapeake
Although New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled largely by people of English origin, by 1700 the regions had evolved into two distinct societies. Why did this difference in development occur?
How would you use the ship manifests to help answer this question?
Important to Remember...
What is this known as?
Freedom with provisions, such as land ownership
(Early-mid 1700s)
More public debate, discussion
(1600s-1700s in Europe)
Full transcript