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Copy of Close Reading & School Librarians

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Leslie Luken

on 24 July 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Close Reading & School Librarians


"The goal of close reading instruction is to foster independent readers who are able to plumb the depths of a text by considering only the text itself."

(Shanahan, 2014, p. 29)

also known as
critical reading
gets readers to
focus intently
on the text by
thoroughly examining
it to gather as much meaning as possible
(Shanahan, 2014, p. 29)
does not
rely on
"front-loading"
- a lot of information or support before reading the text
(Shanahan, 2014, p.29)
basic objective is for students to "
think about
and
understand
what they are reading"
(Harris, 2014, p.14)
What is Close Reading?
Close Reading:
Impact on Schools
Works Cited
Fisher, D. & Frey, N. (2013). What's the secret to successful close reading? Strategic preparation and follow up. Reading Today, 31 (2), 16-17.
Harris, J. (2014). Expanding the school library media specialist's role: Integrating close reading activities into the library curriculum. Library Media Connection, 32 (4), 14-16.
Lance, K. C. & Hofshire, L. (2012). Report: A closer look: Change in school library staffing linked to chance in CSAP reading performance, 2005-2011. In Library Research Service. Retrieved July 18, 2014 from http://www.lrs.org/documents/closer_look/CO4_2012_Closer_Look_Report.pdf.
Moreillon, J. (2012). Reading comprehension at the core of the library program. School Library Monthly, 29 (2), 5-8.
Shanahan, T. (2014). This is not close reading (But we'll tell you what is). Scholastic Instructor, 123 (4), 28-30.
Tilley, C.L. (2013). Reading instruction and school librarians. School Library Monthly, 30 (3), 5-7.


How to Use Close Reading
Students need to read and reread the texts...










Amber Clapp
A Closer Look at Close Reading
the CCSS are moving education toward a text-based, writer-centered focus where learners must "independently apply strategies to determine how authors position readers to draw conclusions from texts"
(Moreillon, 2012, p.6)

by implementing close reading strategies, schools can be assured they are meeting the required Common Core Standards

Let's take a closer look at how close reading directly addresses the Common Core standards for reading...
Close Reading & the Common Core State Standards (CCSS)
Close Reading in Action
Because close reading has
three core reading goals
, students will need to
read
the text or portions of the text
three separate times
.
Use the information below to help move students through the close reading process.
(Shanahan, 2014, p.29)
First Reading
Goal:
Determine what the text says

Examples of questions for students:
What is the text about?
What is the theme of the story?
What was __________ (character) like, and what did he/she do in the story?
Second Reading
Goal:
Figure out how the text works

Examples of questions for students:
What does _________ (a word from the text) mean in this context?
Who is telling this part of the story?
What is the author's purpose for this section?
Third Reading
Goal:
Analyze and compare the text

Examples of questions for students:
What information do these illustrations add to the text? Or, how does this picture differ from what the author wrote?
Compare ______ (an aspect of the text, such as character or main idea) with the same aspect in another text by the same author.
What reasons does the author give to support _______ (one of the ideas)?
Getting Started: Some Other Considerations When Using Close Reading
Make sure students know they're going to read the same text three times

(Shanahan, 2014, p.30)
Pre-teach difficult vocabulary words
& briefly introduce the story
(Shanahan, 2014, p.30)
Make sure students know how to annotate a text:
underlining key ideas
circling confusing words & phrases
writing questions or reactions in the margins

Tell them what they should be looking for as they are rereading
(Shanahan, 2014, p.30)
Use "text-dependent" questions:
students must read the text to answer them correctly
responses can be explained or supported with evidence from the text
(Shanahan, 2014, p.30)
(Shanahan, 2014, p.30)
When & How to Use Close Reading to Enhance Student Learning
Incorporate close reading into your instruction, but don't try to use it exclusively. Not every text deserves a close reading.
try one or two close reads every couple of weeks
(Shanahan, 2014, p.30)
Text-dependent questions can be used to keep conversations going or when students are ready to "dive deeper into the text."
(Fisher & Frey, 2013, p.16)
Have students talk with others about their ideas and use evidence from the text to make and support their claims.
(Fisher & Frey, 2013, p.16)
Have students complete post-reading tasks such as debates, Socratic Seminars, and writing prompts using their annotations from the text.
(Fisher & Frey, 2013, p.17)

Want more information on Close Reading?
I found these resources to be helpful.
Helpful Articles:
Fisher, D. & Frey, N. (2013). What's the secret to successful close reading? Strategic preparation and follow up. Reading Today, 31 (2), 16-17.
(general information on close reading & strategies for incorporating)
Harris, J. (2014). Expanding the school library media specialist's role: Integrating close reading activities into the library curriculum. Library Media Connection, 32 (4), 14-16.
(includes an extensive list of generic text-dependent questions for students that can be used with each step of the close reading process)
Shanahan, T. (2014). This is not close reading (But we'll tell you what is). Scholastic Instructor, 123 (4), 28-30.
(good introduction to close reading & text-dependent questions)

Helpful Websites:
Boyles, N. (2013). Closing in on close reading. In Educational Leadership,70(4). Retrieved July 15, 2014 from http://http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/dec12/vol70/num04/Closing-in-on-Close-Reading.aspx.
(good overview of close reading and tips on how to create your own text-dependent questions)
Literacy design collaborative (2014). Retrieved July 18, 2014 from http://ldc.org/.
(lots of suggestions for post-reading tasks that encourage close reading)
Filkins, S. (2014). Read write think: Close reading of literary texts. Retrieved July 19, 2014 from http://www.readwritethink.org/professional-development/strategy-guides/close-reading-literary-texts-31012.html#strategy-practice.
(includes tips for how to choose texts for close reading and developing text-dependent questions)
(Fisher & Frey, 2013, p.16)
Remember the Three Goals of Close Reading?
Each goal aligns to different components of the Common Core reading standards.
Goal:
Determine what the text says

Common Core Connections:
CC
Reading Standards 1, 2, and 3
emphasize identifying a text's key ideas or details

Second Reading
Goal:
Figure out how the text works

Common Core Connections:
CC
Reading Standards 4, 5, and 6
require students to focus on craft and structure
Third Reading
Goal:
Analyze and compare the text

Common Core Connections:
CC
Reading Standards 7, 8, and 9
highlight the "integration of knowledge and meaning" (how the text measures up and compares to other texts)
First Reading
(Shanahan, 2014, p.29)
School librarians must partner with classroom teachers and school officials to help teach and promote close reading strategies.
This aligns with the 2010 American Association of School Librarians (AASL) statement that advocated for school librarians as instructional partners in the teaching of reading
(Tilley, 2013, p.5).
Harris
also states, "by expanding our role to include close reading activities in the library program, we will help prepare students to be college and career ready"
(2014, p.14).
What Does This Mean for School Librarians?
Where do I begin?
Some simple suggestions for how school librarians can begin implementing close reading strategies in their current library programs.
Help students analyze texts on a deeper lever by
providing
them with
text-dependent questions
.
(Harris, 2014, p.14)
Have questions prepared for popular books/series that students want to read.
Collaborate
with classroom teachers from all disciplines. Attend curriculum, grade level, and department meetings. Work with them on their classroom standards, find out what library materials you can provide, and help them create activities to reinforce close reading.
(Harris, 2014, p.15-16)
Coteach
with a classroom teacher to introduce students to the close reading process. Teachers and school librarians who work together can, "clarify new standards and use terms and processes consistently while giving students multiple opportunities in the classroom and in the library to reach mastery."
(Moreillon, 2012, p.6)
Provide
professional development
opportunities where teachers can come and learn what close reading is and how to start using the process in their classrooms.
These "job-embedded professional development" sessions give educators the chance to "learn together in site-based, authentic professional learning opportunities that position school librarians in a leadership role."
(Moreillon, 2012, p.8)
Create a literacy center
in the library with materials to encourage close reading activities. After students have read, they can complete a handout answering basic text-dependent questions. If students complete the work, they can earn extra credit in class, free pencils, bookmarks, or gift certificates from local businesses.
(Harris, 2014, p. 16)
"School librarians may not have the expertise to teach young readers how to blend sound-spelling patterns to make sense of unfamiliar words, but reading is much more than phonics. Reading is about meaning making, and constructing meaning requires intellectual engagement with the full range of a text's symbolic expression, words, and images, both print and digital."
(Tilley, 2013, p.5)
So School Librarians are Supposed to Teach Reading?
To What End?
What does research show about the connection between students, teachers, and school librarians?
School Librarians & Reading Test Scores
"Research on school librarians and their association with students' test scores is remarkably consistent in its findings: regardless of how or poor a community is, students tend to perform better on reading tests where, and when, their library programs are in the hands of endorsed librarians."
(Lance & Hofshire, 2012, p.9)
School Librarians & Classroom Connections
"Kachel et al. (2011) summarized the research findings of the School Library Impact Studies (Library Research Service 2012) and identified a positive correlation between classroom-library collaboration for instruction and increased student achievement in fifteen out of the twenty-one studies they reviewed."
(Moreillon, 2012, p. 6)
Want more on Close Reading &
the Common Core Standards?
I found these resources to be helpful.
Helpful Articles:
Shanahan, T. (2014). This is not close reading (But we'll tell you what is). Scholastic Instructor, 123 (4), 28-30.
(connects close reading to the CCSS for reading)
Moreillon, J. (2012). Reading comprehension at the core of the library program. School Library Monthly, 29 (2), 5-8.
(analyzes the goals of Common Core and how close reading addresses those)
Moreillon, J. (2013). A matrix for school librarians: Aligning standards, inquiry, reading, and instruction. School Library Monthly, 29 (4), 29-32.
(includes a matrix that aligns CCSS, AASL Standards, and the inquiry process; also includes reading comprehension and learning strategies; PDF is available online at http://schoollibrarymonthly.com/articles/pdf/Moreillon2013-v29n4p29.pdf)

Helpful Websites:
McGraw hill education common core tool box: Close reading and the CCSS, part 1 (2014). Retrieved July 20, 2014 from http://www.mhecommoncoretoolbox.com/close-reading-and-the-ccss-part-1.html.
(part 1 of the video that describes close reading's connection to the CCSS)
McGraw hill education common core tool box: Close reading and the CCSS, part 2 (2014). Retrieved July 20, 2014 from http://www.mhecommoncoretoolbox.com/close-reading-and-the-ccss-part-1.html.
(part 2 of the video series that describes close reading's connection to the CCSS)
Image:
Enokson. (2010). I <3 books...even closer. Retrieved July 20, 2014 from https://www.flickr.com/photos/vblibrary/4399471118/in/photolist-7GLruj-ahkHU8-8GqTtA-814Zx5-621Ks1-7HAJ9i-9xuFDk-apLbni-4eTn9u-aBbM7-cXGLJG-7NMbhk-7HEE31-GWkrF-5n83BH-8Pga1j-CyarD-6y5fJf-88vL2L-bD8yRG-7sWGRK-7GGvEg-61cX15-m3j1q6-8eKnR1-bqdZd-6XPhbS-6y5g2U-dUowip-63FdRk-9E8nu-5MbH37-9Uk51H-84Zrgb-7HAJ6t-7VKNGS-7J6hS-7yAZgq-6EHuKB-6kkqKc-cTMvKs-7imeNb-7yDTZg-cdaEDL-8mxGWu-7VGyhX-e4vipc-7HEE1E-5wFNhT-8AJXMC/.
Image:
Cindi. (2007). Day 106 - I am a librarian. Retrieved July 20, 2014 from https://www.flickr.com/photos/trucolorsfly/352573802/in/photolist-61v6EZ-5qA2CS-6r4L4-p3Vni-59EXzx-24LwNm-5mFLH-673Ymq-nunqN-d4z5SQ-4fJG7u-76PhNg-673Z6E-viJ17-bjw1j-fuFWK-xa2UE-87cbGU-8qMD1U-ciEbB-8zozMZ-6332LV-auv19i-4PRGeT-cno6iw-3SVEH-6Zn4iz-dNbdBu-xqmKA-9r1RMM-aWsy8r-8waHaD-4t7EW3-a39DU8-5JQdNo-7gtTJo-5qHHx6-7znXSD-gMhUt-5w8tzt-jpZ8bc-viHZ9-9ygKUT-5VDH3t-mmaAa-hf4eF-6JswcQ-3Szhke-bscCGN-33xFSK.
Image:
CollegeDegrees360. (2012). Student. Retrieved July 20, 2014 from https://www.flickr.com/photos/83633410@N07/7658278494/in/photolist-99utdQ-4jmUh-4LKZQH-cEJFoo-6zphBD-cEJnWs-7LmFQ4-nEegRd-9Yhnpc-czrQuC-byRKGk-298Ybt-96xajV-aB8MNy-cT2gN3-by3mZJ-9CRgBu-9xiduB-b9wcMV-9CNkJD-9CNmqZ-9CNm8c-9CNngi-5QZ3hL-b9wY7D-7TSrZ2-buRLHu-6XZFMc-o6WpS-2PJJS7-itAMUy-cT2gqu-7EWLbx-b9wdHv-88Sub5-9WXXBX-cEJmqQ-7JM9oz-6yAWh4-7JxyWy-9CNmf4-9CRhky-9CRg4s-bE9Kxt-b9wTRZ-b9wWhM-b9wnTe-b9wZ1t-b9wCVn-b9wCyB
Image:
Vene, A. (2012). Children's reading book. Retrieved July 20, 2014 from https://www.flickr.com/photos/alessandrovene/7343362996/in/photolist-82XcjA-g5BR4-d23uZs-2BQig3-6WRPx6-niGDoj-cbUDYQ-6JKstG-58Q7wh-5aMtDQ-7xMoXo-bSmmzD-bEfKML-d5Z5Y9-aDVgG2-5BKNsG-9UCBHy-5fxFoQ-6bTs8x-bUgK6w-dXDrCi-7jeFNi-6enTV6-9TDiW9-QtXAi-aAceEa-8AUHEF-tqFtL-2GzHFT-eVTRVv-ckVNij-87Gdfi-eeQkrg-5ZU5QE-6wVf1-bpJ9yL-fpsQk7-c4o23w-6ef3EQ-85APmv-fMZpiT-6uMwQm-4zzJEr-brDXXt-ehgkZA-hdhdKa-6N31B1-7G4siC-7u7syF-ndLDCd
Full transcript