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Dairy and Eggs
Transcript of Dairy and Eggs
Describe guidelines for preventing adverse reactions when cooking with dairy products
Describe the principles and methods for cooking dairy and eggs Let's talk about...
types of dairy products
storing dairy products
cooking with dairy products Types of dairy products Cooking with dairy products What are examples of dairy products?? Milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, sour cream, ice cream, and butter are all examples of dairy products Examples! Why choose dairy? Dairy products contain calcium, protein, vitamins and minerals! Dairy products also add flavor, texture and richness to many foods! Milk Cream Yogurt Concentrated Milk Butter Milk is a popular beverage and an important ingredient in many foods. After the cow is milked, there are several processes before we can drink it Pasteurization During pasteurization, milk is heated to destroy harmful bacteria, which helps the keeping quality but does not affect the nutritional value or flavor. Ultra-high temperature processing Some milk is treated with UHT, which uses higher temperatures than regular pasteurization, in order to increase the shelf life . UHT products do not have to be refrigerated before opening. Homogenization Whole milk is homogenized, which prevents cream from rising to the surface of milk by breaking globules of milkfat into tiny particles and spreading them throughout the milk. Fortification Milk is often fortified with vitamins A and D, which means that these vitamins are added to the milk to make it healthier. Storing dairy products As you may have noticed, there are several types of milk... Types of milk Whole milk Reduced fat milk Fat free milk
Milkfat is the FAT portion of the milk
Milk solids contain most of the vitamins, minerals, protein and sugar First, some definitions... Whole milk must contain at least 3.25% milkfat and 8.25% milk solids Fat free milk has nearly all of the fat removed All types of milk begin as pasteurized whole milk Reduced fat milk has some of the fat removed The less fat the milk has, the fewer calories it has! Some people experience gas, cramps, bloating and diarrhea after drinking milk and milk products This is called lactose intolerance and happens when people's bodies do not produce enough lactase, the enzyme needed to digest lactose Types of cream include... Heavy whipping cream (lots of fat)
Light whipping cream (less fat)
Light cream or coffee cream (even less fat)
Half and half (half cream/half milk)
ICE CREAM!!! (depends...) Some dairy products are made from milk to which helpful bacteria have been added. These bacteria have been cultured, or specially grown for this purpose! These bacteria produce lactic acid, which gives yogurt a thick texture and tangy flavor. The amount of fat in yogurt depends on whether the yogurt was made from whole milk or fat free milk... While yogurt is nutritious, BE CAREFUL! Fruit flavored yogurt often contains 8 tsp of added sugar! Instead, buy plain yogurt and stir in fresh fruit :) Concentrated milk products are those who have the water removed and can then be canned or dried. Evaporated milk is sterilized, homogenized whole, skim or fat free milk that has had some of the water removed. You can add water to it and it will be nutritionally the same as regular milk. You can use it for drinking or in recipes. Sweetened condensed milk is milk with some of the water removed and a sweetener added. It is used often in cooking and baking. You can NOT add water to make regular milk. Churning pasteurized and specially cultured cream produces butter. The churned product is then usually salted and artificially colored. Cheese is another form of concentrated milk. Cheese is an excellent source of protein, calcium and phosphorous. Kinds of cheese Natural Unripened Ripened Processed Natural cheese is made from milk that has been coagulated(changed from liquid to semisolid or solid) and then the curd(solid) is separated from the whey(liquid). Unripened cheese is natural cheese that is ready for marketing as soon as the whey(liquid) has been removed. Cottage cheese, cream cheese and ricotta cheese are unripened Controlled amounts of bacteria, mold, yeast or enzymes are used to make ripened cheeses. During ripening, the cheese is stored to develop texture and flavor. Cheese is aged anywhere from 2 weeks- 2 years. Pasteurized processed cheese is made from a blend of unripened and ripened cheeses which are heated and emulsified so that the product is smooth and creamy. All dairy products are highly perishable. Cover and store them in the coldest part of the refrigerator. Pour only what you will use and immediately return the rest to the fridge. Keep containers tightly closed to prevent contamination and poor flavor Cover ice cream tightly and do not let it become soft. When it becomes soft, large ice crystals will form when ice cream is refrozen, which damages the texture of ice cream :( Refrigerate all butter and margarine. Do not let them stand at room temperature for long periods of time. Freezing will extend the life of butter and margarine! Cover or tightly wrap all cheese and refrigerate it. Cheese can become moldy if you store it improperly or keep it too long. Store dried and canned milk in a cool, dry place. When you use milk as an ingredient, you often heat it, which affects proteins (Milk is a protein food). Let's look at what's happening when we heat milk... If you heat milk without stirring, a solid layer of scum will form on the surface, made of milk solids and fat. Stirring the milk during heating, covering the pan or beating milk with a whisk will help prevent scum formation Also, if a layer of scum does form, pressure may build up and cause a boilover. Remember to use low heat and constantly stir to prevent this! Also, dairy products may begin to curdle if you use high temperatures or if you add acids, enzymers or salts, such as those in fruits, vegetables and meat. When cooking with these foods, remember to thicken the milk before adding the other ingredients! Finally, scorching is when milk is burned and will cause color and flavor change. This happens when you heat milk over high heat because the lactose caramelizes (becomes brown) which gives the milk a bitter taste. Remember to use low heat!! You can make many foods from dairy products, such as:
white sauce (melt butter with flour, stir milk in, season)
cream soups (thin white sauce; add meat and veggies)
pudding (heat sugar, salt and starch; add milk and flavoring)
ice cream (milk, cream, sugar and flavoring) Let's talk about...
cooking with eggs Why choose eggs? Eggs are a great source of complete protein and are the equivalent to 1 oz of lean cooked meat Eggs also contain vitamins and minerals. However, the yolk contains cholesterol so remove it whenever possible! Selecting and storing eggs Cooking with eggs Eggs are graded for quality based on whether or not they have clean unbroken shells and small air cells. Egg testers also look for thick, clear egg whites and a firm yolk that stands high above the whites. Look for Grade A or AA eggs when shopping for eggs! Store eggs in the fridge! Also, look to be sure that there are no cracked eggs, which could carry bacteria or illness! Eggs will last 4-5 weeks in the fridge Careful! If you freeze an egg, it could crack! Eggs can be cooked alone or added to other foods. Eggs function as emulsifiers, foaming agents, thickeners, binding agents and interfering agents. They also add structure, nutrients, flavor and color to foods! Functions! Food Science! Cooking Methods! Emuslifiers! Foams! Thickeners! Binding/Interfering Agents Structure Nutrition, Color and Flavor Egg Substitutes An emulsion is a mixture that forms when you combine liquids that ordinarily do not mix. To keep the two liquids from separating, you need an emulsifying agent. Egg yolk is an excellent emulsifying agent! Mayo is an example of an emulsion that uses egg yolks! Egg foams are used to add air to foods. Egg foams are created by beating air into egg whites! Egg foams are used to make meringues, angel food cake, souffles and puffy omelets! Heat causes egg proteins to thicken so eggs are used as thickening agents foods like sauces, custards and puddings FUNctions of eggs! Eggs can BIND foods like meat together (meatloaf) or interfere foods from causing large ice crystals (in ice cream) Eggs add structure to baked products, such as muffins and cakes! Eggs add protein, vitamins and minerals to foods as well as flavor and color!! People who want to limit their cholesterol might use egg substitutes, which are made mostly of egg whites that have been pasteurized (heated to kill bacteria) Eggs coagulate(thicken) as you heat them. Coagulation is affected by temperature, time and addition of other ingredients. If you use high heat, the eggs will lose moisture, shrink and toughen. Be sure to use low or medium heat! Also, if you cook them too long they will lose moisture and shrink! Finally, when you add other ingredients, you may need to increase the temperature(for milk) or decrease the temperature (for acid or salt) Eggs can be scrambled, poached, fried, baked, boiled, microwaved, made into omelets, souffles, meringues or custards When cooking eggs, preheat your skillet over medium heat, grease the pan, then add your egg and turn the heat down to low! Scrambled eggs Break egg into a bowl, beat with fork or whisk, add any desired ingredients like milk(not too much!), seasonings or meat, pour into preheated greased skillet, allow to set and then stir slowly until all liquid is set. Poached eggs To poach an egg, use an egg poacher OR break an egg into a custard cup and slip into a saucepan filled with 2-3 in of simmering liquid (milk, water or broth) for 3-5 mins or until the white is firm and yolk is thickened. Remove with slotted spoon Fried Eggs To fry an egg, add the egg to a greased skillet preheated over medium heat. Cover the skillet until the white is completely set. The steam will cook the upper surface of the egg, or you could flip the egg to cook the top. Baked Eggs To bake eggs, break the egg into a greased dish, place the dish into another dish filled with 1 inch of water. Bake at 350 for 12-18 minutes. Boiled eggs To boil eggs, place eggs in a deep pan. Add enough cold water to come 1 inch above the eggs. Cover the pan and quickly bring water to a boil. Immediately remove the pan from heat and leave the eggs in the water for 5 minutes(soft boiled) to 15 minutes (hard boiled). Immediately run under cold water and eat or refrigerate! Microwaved eggs You can cook eggs in the microwave too! Or eggs can be made into.... Omelets Souffles Meringues Custards THE END...