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8.5 CV Drive Axles and Wheel Bearings

An overview of drive axles and wheel bearings. Construction, design, operation, and service
by

Ivan W. Anderson

on 8 January 2013

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Transcript of 8.5 CV Drive Axles and Wheel Bearings

cv joint ball type Fixed joint
Does not move in and out to change shaft length
Is used as the outboard joint

Plunging joint
Changes in length to allow movement of the suspension
Is used as the inboard joint CV-Joint Functions Loosen lug and hub nuts with the wheel on the ground

Index the position of the strut to the steering knuckle before disassembly

Always tighten all bolts to the factory torque specifications

Never reuse axle hub nuts Bearing Replacement Tips Excessive play inspection
Usually checked by pulling outward at the top of the tire and pushing inward at the bottom with the vehicle supported under the control arm

Noise inspection
Bearing noise will often increase when the vehicle is turned FWD Wheel Bearing Inspection Clean the joint thoroughly so a complete inspection can be made

Refer to the service manual to find out how the joint is retained to the shaft

Pack the new joint using all of the lubricant supplied CV-Joint Replacement Tips Make sure all components are clean before assembly

Only use new axle hub nuts

Always torque axle hub nut to specifications Axle Removal Techniques (cont’d) Drive the car under various conditions such as accelerating, coasting, turning, and weaving side to side

Listen for clicking or clunking, especially while turning

Feel for shudder, shimmy, vibration, or any other abnormalities Performing a Road Test Ball-type joint
Is similar to a Rzeppa joint but has elongated grooves
in the inner race
Is commonly known as a double-offset joint

Tripod-type joint
Has longer grooves than
a fixed-type joint to allow
for plunging Inboard Joints Inner tri-pod operation Design, Operation, and Service 8.5 Drive Axles and Wheel Bearings Mark the location of the
boot on the axle before
removal

Inspect the grease for
contamination

Make sure the new boot
clamps are secure

Use a dull screwdriver
to remove trapped air
from the boot Boot Replacement Tips Be careful not to
over-tighten the shaft
in the vise

Look for cracks, chips,
pits, or rust on all
components

Check the joint for
sticking while plunging
it in and out

Check for discoloring
usually caused by heat Bench Inspection Always follow manufacturer’s service procedures

Never let the axle or other components hang free

Be careful not to damage ABS sensor components

Use the correct pullers to separate the inboard joint from the differential Axle Removal Techniques Cuts or tears from foreign objects
Accident damage
Improper towing hook-up or service techniques
Ice forming around boot
Deterioration
Clamp failure
Improper service on a suspension component
Improper removal of the half shaft Possible Reasons for CV-Boot Failure Check out all other problem
areas before assuming that
the problem is being caused
by the axle assembly

Check the CV-boots for
tears and grease leaks

Check the shafts for damage or being bent

Move the shaft, wheels, and other components to check for looseness Visual Inspection Outboard Joints (cont’d) Tripod-type joint
Uses a central hub (tripod) with three trunnions
Has roller bearings that ride on the trunnions
The outer surface of bearings ride in the joint or “tulip” housing
Allows for greater angles than other designs CV-Joints Outboard joint types
Rzeppa fixed tripod

Inboard joint types
Double-offset
Plunging tripod
Cross-groove plunge
joint Equal length shafts
Used to reduce torque
steer

Vibration dampers
Sometimes used to
dampen vibrations
in the driveline

Unequal length half-shafts
Usually constructed differently to prevent torque steer Types of Drive Axles





1937 Cord
Differential and trans
In front of engine 1. Talk to the customer
Get as much information as possible
2. Road test the vehicle
Listen and feel for symptoms
3. Perform a visual inspection
Look and feel for causes of concern Steps in FWD Axle Diagnosis Outboard Joints Ball-type CV-joint
Was named after its designer, A.H. Rzeppa
Uses three to six steel balls held together by a steel cage
The balls ride in a socket to allow rotation and turning
Is used in most front-wheel-drive vehicles Drive Axle
Components Outer CV-joint
Allows wheels to steer while axle is rotating
Inner CV-joint
Allows for suspension changes while axle is rotating
Axle shaft
Transmits power from inner to outer CV-joint



Transverse What is the problem?
Is the symptom felt or heard?
What type of noise is it?
When does the noise or symptom occur?
When did the symptom start?
Was the vehicle going straight or turning?
What work has been recently done on the vehicle? Questions to Ask the Customer FWD Wheel Bearing Styles Double-row, angular-contact
bearings
Are used on most General
Motors, DaimlerChrysler,
and European cars
Have two rows of ball bearings
located next to each other

Opposed tapered-roller bearings
Are used on Fords and
most Asian cars 1968 Cadillac Longitudinal layout
Press Type Bearings Press Type bearings cont'd Press Type Bearings
Full transcript