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Trompenaars

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Rheann Oakley

on 13 November 2013

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Transcript of Trompenaars

Hofstede & Trompenaars Cultural Dimensions
Outline
Intro to Hofstede
5 dimensions of Hofstede’s Framework
Intro to Trompenaars
7 dimensions of Trompenaar's Theory
Discussion
Conclusion

Power Distance
"Power distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally."
Trompenaars
Classifies cultures along a mix of behavioral and value patterns.
Published in 'Riding The Waves of Culture', 1997
Seven dimensions - some similar to Hofstede.
Specific vs. Diffuse
Work before relationship?
Typical specific cultures include the U.S., the U.K., Switzerland, Germany etc.
Typical diffuse cultures include Argentina, Spain, Russia etc
Hofstede
World-wide survey by IBM in 1960s-1970s
Hofstede Model of Cultural Dimensions (1980)
5 different dimensions

Individualism vs Collectivism
Universalism vs. Particularism
The way relationships are measured.
Typical universalist cultures include the U.S., Canada, the U.K, the Netherlands, Germany etc.
Typical particularistic cultures include Russia, Latin-America etc.
Individualism vs. Communitarianism

Typical individualist cultures include the U.S., Canada, the U.K, Scandinavia, New Zealand.
Typical communitarian cultures include countries in Latin-America, Africa, and Japan.

Trompenaars

Long-Term Orientation

Uncertainty Avoidance

Conclusion

How People Relate to Their Environment
Typical internal-direction cultures include Israel, the U.S., Australia, New Zealand, and the U.K.
Typical outer-direction cultures include China, Russia, and Saudi Arabia.

Internal vs. External control

How people view status
Typical achievement cultures include the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Scandinavia.
Typical ascription cultures include France, Italy, Japan, and Saudi Arabia.

Achievement vs. ascription

How Far People Get Involved
Typical specific cultures include the U.S., the U.K., Switzerland, Germany, Scandinavia, and the Netherlands.
Typical diffuse cultures include Argentina, Spain, Russia, India, and China.

Specific vs. diffuse

How People Express Emotions
Typical neutral cultures include the U.K., Sweden, the Netherlands, Finland, and Germany.
Typical emotional cultures include Poland, Italy, France, Spain, and countries in Latin-America.

Neutral vs. emotional

The individual vs. The Group
Typical individualist cultures include the U.S., Canada, the U.K, Scandinavia, New Zealand, Australia, and Switzerland.
Typical communitarian cultures include countries in Latin-America, Africa, and Japan.

Individualism vs. Communitarianism

Rules vs relationships
Typical universalist cultures include the U.S., Canada, the U.K, the Netherlands, Germany, Scandinavia, New Zealand, Australia, and Switzerland.
Typical particularistic cultures include Russia, Latin-America, and China.

Universalism vs. particularism

(strength of social hierarchy)
Issues?

Power Distance

Individualism vs Collectivism

World-wide survey by IBM in 1960s-1970s
Hofstede Model of Cultural Dimensions (1980)
5 different dimensions


Hofstede

Intro to hofstede
5 dimensions of Hofstede’s Framework
Trompenaars
7 dimensions of Trompenaars Theory
Discussion
Conclusion

outline

Which model do you think is more effective?

DISCUSSION

How People Manage Time
Typical sequential-time cultures include Germany, the U.K., and the U.S.
Typical synchronous-time cultures include Japan, Argentina, and Mexico. -

Sequential vs. synchronic

By Rheann Oakley & Rebecca Orr

Hofstede & Trompenars

(task orientation vs. person orientation)

Masculinity vs Femininity

Long Term Orientation vs.
Short Term Orientation
Uncertainty Avoidance
Masculinity vs. Femininity
Neutral vs. Emotional
How business relationships are dealt with.
Typical neutral cultures include the U.K., Sweden etc.
Typical emotional cultures include Poland, Italy, France, Spain, and countries in Latin-America.

Achievement vs. Ascription
How personal status is assigned.
Typical achievement cultures include the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Scandinavia.
Typical ascription cultures include France, Italy, Japan, and Saudi Arabia.

Sequential vs. Synchronic
How cultures complete tasks.
Typical sequential-time cultures include Germany, the U.K., and the U.S.
Typical synchronous-time cultures include Japan, Argentina, and Mexico.
Internal vs. External Control
Does the environment control the you?
Typical internal-direction cultures include Israel, the U.S., Australia etc.
Typical outer-direction cultures include China, Russia, and Saudi Arabia
Conclusion
Discussion
Sources
Individualists: people are expected to stand up for themselves and their immediate family
Collectivists: individuals act predominantly as members of a lifelong and cohesive group or organization
People in cultures with high uncertainty avoidance tend to be more emotional
Low uncertainty avoidance cultures accept and feel comfortable in unstructured situations or changeable environments and try to have as few rules as possible
Masculine cultures' values are competitiveness, assertiveness, materialism,ambition and power.
Feminine cultures place more value on relationships and quality of life.
Long term oriented societies attach more importance to the future.
Short term oriented societies, values promoted are related to the past and the present
Hofstede, Geert, Gert Jan Hofstede and Michael Minkov.Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2010.
Hofstede, Geert (1984). Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values (2nd ed.). Beverly Hills CA
Hofstede, Geert (2001). Culture's Consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.).
http://geert-hofstede.com/index.php 2013
Geert Hofstede (1996) "Riding the waves of commerce: a test of Trompenaars' "model" of national culture differences", in: International Journal of Intercultural Relations 20(2): p. 189-198.
Roeland Muskens (2001) "Fons Trompenaars." in MT. Jan 1, 2001. Accessed Sept 9. 2013.
Trompenaars, F., Hampden-Turner, C. (1997) Riding the Waves of Culture.
Hofstede, G. (1996) "Riding the waves of commerce: a test of Trompenaars' "model" of national culture differences", in: International Journal of Intercultural Relations 20(2): p. 189-198.
http://www2.thtconsulting.com/about/people/fons-trompenaars/
Hofstede's aim was to evaluate work values.
However Trompenaars evaluated behaviour in a number of both work and leisure situations
Most frequently used framework is Hofstede.
Give one piece of advice to an organization from a individualistic culture entering into business with an organization from a collectivist culture.
Rebecca Orr
s0545497
Rheann Oakley
s0545494

Pro's & Con's
Pros:
defined culture & how it can be measured.
reduced chance of conflict in work place
one set of principles that can be used universally
Cons:
worries that framework was exhausted.
culture is complex.
Pros & Cons
Pros:
prevents misunderstandings
establishes business relationships around the world.
highlights no culture is better than another.
Cons:
cannot measure peoples preferences on each dimension.
does not provide recommendations on how to work with specific cultures.
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