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2.09 Medieval Europe and Japan DBA
Transcript of 2.09 Medieval Europe and Japan DBA
2.09 Medieval Europe and Japan DBA
Important Islamic and Christian Figures associated with Crusades
Pope Urban II (1042-1099)
Saladin (died March 4th, 1193)
Richard the Lionheart (1157-1199)
Usamah bin Munqidh (1095-1188)
Eliezer ben Nathan (1090- 1170)
The Crusades were an attempt by the Catholic church to re-gain control, authority, and power over provinces in the Middle East. Pilgrims were denied the right to visit the holy lands by the Muslims, and the Kingdom of Christendom wanted to free Eastern Christians from islamic rule. Jerusalem was the usual target. It was of historical, spiritual and religious importance to Christian nations and so it had to be seized. The Church promised everyone who was involved a remission of their sins and protection of land-- almost as a persuasion.
The Christian Church taking the action to go forth and multiply, was one cause for a population explosion. When Columbus discovered a New World this caused many to believe a utopian 'Christian' society could be formed in the Americas and other new lands. Thus the birth rate continued to rise. While plagues were common. they often were treated (in terms of population growth as opposed to logic) as creating new voids for new members of society to fill.
Key Figures in Art, Architecture, and Literature during the Middle Ages
- Famous for his statuary work
Giotto di Bondone
- Architect, sculptor, painter of early renaissance. Pioneered new ideals of naturalism.
- A founder of the movement towards greater realism, which culminated in the Renaissance.
- Artist, Sculptor and Architect. Developed a technique forming the basis of Renaissance architecture, and also developed the use of perspective.
- Famous Florentine artist of the Middle Ages who specialized in pietistic painting (religious art).
- Medieval sculptor and painter. He was a founder of the Renaissance.
Geoffrey of Monmouth- W
rote a fictional book called Historia Regum Britanniae-- the History of the King's of Britain in 1136.
- Wrote a scholastic objection protesting against the church practice of indulgences known as the 95 Theses.
Medieval Social Hierarchy
Role of the Christian Church in Medieval Society
The beginning of the Early Middle Ages, after the Fall of Rome in 476 AD and the Dark Ages, the reorganization of the empire brought a desire for faith and religion-- primarily Christianity.
This trend of Christian importance was apparent until 1350, when the Black Death caused the end of a systematized era. The church was often viewed, during this period of time, as a center of corruption, greed, and evil, with materialistic popes and unholy acts. The presence of Christianity brought hope and stability to the empire politically and socially.
In the fourth century, Christianity had started its rapid spread becoming the state religion. Christianity's popularity influenced the church by people's new found ability to concentrate on faith and a better life. With this foundation, the Middle Ages expanded religious importance by employing it in daily life.
Achievements of Influential Rulers in Medieval Europe
Alfred the Great:
Anglo-Saxon king of Wessex, defeated the Danish invaders and unified much of Britain. Learned, possessed of a big library (for the times), visited Rome twice. The only English sovereign to be called "The Great."
King of the Franks. Crowned Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas Day, 800 A.D. Presided over a brief but real re-birth of learning termed the "Carolingian Renaissance." On his death, his empire was divided among his 3 sons, and the great advances were gradually lost.
William the Conquerer (1028-1087):
First Duke of Normandy (northern France) and a bastard, became King of England after invasion. Most famous battle was Hastings (1066), where his victory over the Anglo-Saxon King Harold II allowed him to advance toward the rest of England. During his rule, he did a lot of government and church reform. The most lasting effect of his legacy was the transformation of the English language from Normans mixing in with Anglo-Saxons.
Course and Consequences of the Crusades
Depending on the circumstances, each crusade had its own individual effect. In general, the Crusades allowed Arabian medical practices and architectural knowledge to be transferred to the West. Conquered towns helped to provide extra income for the treasury from furs, ivory and spices. It was uplift to Christians worldwide, knowing their sacred place of worship was securely in the hands of fellow believers.
Factors that Contributed to the Rise of Modern Europe and an Age of Expansionism
Growth and Development of National Identity in France, Spain, and England
Contributions to England's national identity:
-The English war
-The British control of India
Contributions to France's national Identity:
-Rise of the monarchy
-The Capetian Dynasty
-French Wars of Religion
-Thirty Years' War
-The French Revolution
-War of Spanish Succession
-The World Wars
-The Scientific Revolution
-French and Indian War
-Seven Years' War
Contribtions to Spain's national identity:
-Roman culture ("HIspania")
-German culture (Visogothic kingdoms)
-Christian culture (Roman Catholicism)
-Muslim culture ("Moors")
-Conflicts with Turks and Protestants
-Roman Catholic church
How Japan's Location as an Island Nation Impacted its Development
Japans geography impacts its development because it is located mostly in water, making it easy for Japan to trade over sea. Because Japan is an island, they have no borders, which is a good thing because they don't have to worry as much about people sneaking into their country and invading. Japan also had copious amounts of mountains, making it hard for farming and trading via land routes. Although, it benefited them in a way that made it more difficult for foreigners to attack.
Japan's Cultural and Economic Relationship to China and Korea
Culture: While Japan during the Edo period was a closed country to the West, it still traded on a limited basis with China and Korea. The limits on other trade helped to solidify the bonds between the three Asian nations.
Economics: Japanese literature, writing and poetry saw great development and advancement in the Heian period (794-1185 AD); but the Edo period (1615-1868) is also considered to be a great time of internal development for Japan. The arts of all three nations developed in similar ways, and affected each other greatly. For example, Korean ceramics were favorites in Japan for use in the tea ceremony.
Japanese Feudalism Compared to Western European Feudalism During the Middle Ages
Both Japan and Europe had landowning and non-landowning castes during the Middle Ages. Unlike European feudalism, Japanese feudalism did not have a true pyramid form with the monarch presiding over a hierarchy of less important nobles.
First, authority in Japan was much less centralized than it was in the nation-states of Europe. The rugged terrain of Japan made it difficult for the emperor to fully control the local aristocracy. Thus, the local aristocrats had much more power in Japan than they ever had in France, Britain, or any other European country.
Secondly, although the lower nobility in Japan (the samurai) swore fealty to their local lords, the samurai did not get any land of their own. While the European nobility received land in exchange for their military service, the samurai did not join a landowning hierarchy. Instead, they were given an independent income from their local lord based on what that lord's lands produced.