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Canada's Growth and Change- Chapter 7

A Prezi on are history notes from pages 138-158.
by

Chloe S.

on 10 June 2011

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Transcript of Canada's Growth and Change- Chapter 7

Canada's Growth and Change How Did Cities and Factories Grow? Entrepeneurs- people who begin or organize a business 1881-1901 rapid expansion
1881- 25% of people lived in cities
1911 population growth doubled
increase in number of factories manufacturing goods The Snowball Effect of Canada's Population Immigrants settling
in cities. Employers building
factories in cities. Canada's growing
population. Immigration to Canada **Immigration: most important factor in population growth.** Sudbury, Ontario Lethbridge, Alberta rich in coal desposits Canada's first industrial town oil and natural gas became number one fossil fuels World War One increased demand for coal in 1914 no settlement until CPR came through in 1800's copper was discovered in rocks, made prospectors rich Sudbury gained wealth by exporting copper and nickel around the world World War One increased demand for nickel and other minerals Poor Economy lead to loss of immigration.
Good Economy lead to more immigration. 1910- immigration reached its peak Immigration to Canada, 1880's - 1910's

Decade Immigrants
1881-1890 866 177
1891-1900 339 286
1901-1910 1 644 347
1911-1920 7 712 624 Growth in Cities cities were a place for immigrants to settle and find jobs
greatest increase in immigrants 1891- 1911 (Calgary, Vancouver, Winnipeg)
49% increase for Canada overall Industrialization and First Nations First Nation Male Employment
construction in cities
lumber mills
canneries
mines
farmed on reserves First Nation Female Employment
cleaning
laundry Many immigrants leaving home because of terrible living conditions. The more people settled in cities, the more industry developed. The more industry developed, the more people were drawn to cities. In 1908, the Federal Goverment made it possible to relocate any Aborignal to any reserve, nearby a town exceeding a population of 8000. 1991- a change in the Indian Act allowing municipalities or companies to expropriate reserve land for roads and railways. Expropriate- to legally take property from it's owners Factories
Changed
The
Way
People
Worked John A. MacDonald increased the tariffs on imported goods, which brought about the building of factories at home to supply the Canadian market. In the1880's huge growth in factories making clothing, household goods, and other products. There was also a change from cottage system to factory system. Cottage System- the manufacture of goods made by many people working individually in thier homes

Factory System- the manufacture of goods made by many people working together in a large building Cottage System Factory System worked in homes
whole family worked in the system worked in factories
women and children did the work
used machines Working Conditions in Factories In the 1890's, there was no electricity in the factories, everything was run on steam power. Accidents and injuries were frequent because items of clothing, or body hair would get caught in the pulleys. a
n
g
e
r
o
u
s Raising Voices Demanding Change

groups began to protest/advocate about the factory conditions, showing that they weren't going unnoticed
regilious, social groups, and trade unions were pominent in the struggle for social change The Social Gospel James S. Woodsworth, Methodist minister in Winnipeg, supported interpretation of the Bible, known as the Social Gospel. He believed that the religious people's duty was to improve thier communities. Woodsworth and others, organized charities to help the poor and persuaded the government to make laws that protected the workers. This Social Gospel movement was an important force in the early 1900's. The Temperance Movement Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) founded in 1870's temperance means "moderation" WCTU, banned alcohol entirely- lead to crime, family violence and many ruined lives they organized factories, where thier workers had to pledge to refrain form alcohol demanded government to protect workers in unsafe environment, (child labour) promoted women's rights The WCTU continues to this day! . Labour Unions terrible conditions in Canadian factories, forced many workers to join labour unions in the U.S.
unions worked to improve conditions by negotiationing with employers
Unions in Canada made little progess for these reasons:
federal and provincial government hostile to unions, saw unions as a way to hurt employers
Unions generally wanted male workers- Knights of Labour, one of first to have a women
unions had skilled letters, boilers, makers or capenters- didn't acknowledge unskilled workers 95% of workers in Canada didn't join union until 1911
immigrant numbers raised, cities and factories grew as well as unions
factory wages low, working conditions poor for many years
unions and groups who tried to improve the factory conditions was in progess but slow Words Matter Advocate- to recommend or support by argument

Social Gospel- a movement that emphasized the application of Christian principles to social problems

Movement- a group of people with a common goal

Temperance- literally means moderation, but when used in relation to acohol it meant to abstain What Impact Did Inventors and Pioneers Have? In the 1800's- 1900's many inventors and pioneers had major influence on Canada's development. Inventions helped expand businesses and made lives easier, it improved the lives of women and children. George Ross (1841-1914)

Ontario's Minister of Education, build new schools
more people learned to read operating manuals and safety symbols, good for businesses Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922)

helped hearing impaired/speech therapist
invented first telephone in 1876, gained popularity in the 1890's with businesses Adam Beck (1857-1925)

1905 convinced Ontario's government to develope a hydroelectric plant in Niagara Falls
began to operate in 1910, allowing cheap power to homes and businesses
persuaded cities to join the hydroelectric plant
lead to less worker injuries, because of a decrease in steam powered machines Mabel Hubbard Bell (1857-1923)

married Alexander Graham Bell in 1877
first editor of National Geographical Society magazine
helped develope the "Silver Dart" with husband and J.A.D McCurdy
advocated for women's rights and helped them get teaching positions Martha Black (1866-1957)

1917- member of Royal Geographical Society, rare honor for a women
second woman to be elected into the House of Commons, 1935 Robert Samuel McLaughlin (1871-1972)

1908, expanded businesses to include automoblie production
became President of General Motors in Detroit
helped businesses become efficient and easier Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937)

1900's began to look into long distance radio waves
1901, launched a kite with a radio antenna; successfully received radio signals in Newfoundland from England (3500 km)
led to development of Trans- Atlantic Radio Contact John A.D. McCurdy (1886-1961)

partner with the Aerial Experimental Assocation in Baddeck, N.S.
developed first powered airplane in the British Empire
helped business owners travel farther to supervise businesses How Did Women's Roles Change? women's role in society were restircted until the late 1800's
married women devoted thier lives to thier families, that was an expectation Dr. Emily Stowe (1831-1903)

first female principal in Canada
enrolled in a New York medical school (because Canada didn't accept females)
1867- graduated, then opened her own medical practice in Toronto
couldn't get licensed in Ontario- finally in 1880 she was licensed to pratice Medicine
1883- her daughter became the first women to graduate from a Canadian Medical School Ishbel Maria Gordon, Lady Aberdeen (1857-1939)

husband was the governor general of Canada (1893-1898)
opposed the working conditions that women were exposed to in Canadian factories
important founding of the National Council of Women of Canada (1893) and Victorian Order of Nurses (1897) The National Council of Women of Canada, 1893 founded to pressure politicians and business leaders to address women`s issues
Lady Aberdeen was the first president
worked for the expansion of education for women and supported thier right to vote The Victorian Order of Nurses, 1897 provided communities health care by going into people`s homes
elderly and chornically ill patients benefits most Adelaide Hoodless (1857-1910)

founded the Women`s Institute (WI)- to support and educate women in society Nellie McClung (1873-1951)

member of Women`s Christian Temperance Union
supported better labour laws, prohibiting the sale of acohol and vote for women
1921-1926- Liberal member of Alberta Legislature in Edmonton Emily Murphy (1868-1951)

self-taught legal expert, wanted to improve legal rights of women
1911- pushed Alberta government to give widows one-third of thier hubands` wealth
1916- first women in the British Empire to be appointed as the magistrate
wanted women to be legally considered a person
1929- women finally allowed to be appointed Senate By: Chloe
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