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Brian Patterson

on 13 January 2016

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Transcript of Imperialism

Unit 1

I. Imperialism
A. Imperialism is the policy of forcefully extending one country's
power and influence over another
1. Expansion
2. Resources
3. Influence
B. New Imperialism 1850's - 1940's
1. Alaska
3. Spanish - American War
4. Latin America (Panama, Mexico)
2. Hawaii
5. U.S. in WWI
C. 19th Century Global Competition
1. England
a. 1/3 Africa, India, Canada
2. France
a. 1/3 Africa, Vietnam, Haiti
3. Spain
a. Cuba, Philippines, Puerto Rico
4. Japan
a. China
D. American Expansionism
1. 1890 Frontier closes
a. Americans had pushed to Pacific
b. Manifest Destiny
(1) The idea that Americans were destined to expand
2. Desire for military strength
a. Admiral Alfred Mahan
The Influence of Sea Power Upon History
b. U.S. builds modern naval fleet
(2) 3rd largest naval power in the world
(1) Great White Fleet
3. Belief in cultural superiority
a. Social darwinism
(1) Survival of the fittest
II. Alaska
A. Secretary of State William Seward
1. Believes expansion is essential
2. Works deal to buy Alaska from Russia in 1867
a. "Sewerd's icebox"
b. $7.2 million - 2 cents per acre
B. Alaska's importance
1. Minerals
4. Oil
2. Timber
3. Location - Russia
III. Hawaii
A. 1867 U.S. Takes Midway Islands
1. Shows interest in expanding in Pacific
2. Reinforces the idea of building through Navy
C. Queen Liliuokalani 1891
1. "Hawaii for Hawaiians"
B. Planters
1. 1880 - 80% native Hawaiian population
a. 75% of Hawaii's wealth comes from sugar planters
(1) Labor force: Japanese and Chinese
b. 1900 - 80% foreign population
a. Pearl Harbor (1887)
b. Voting - property owners only
2. Queen overthrown by planters and Marines
a. Sanford Dole - President
D. Hawaii - US Territory 1898 ---50th State 1959
2. McKinley Tariff 1890
IV. Spanish - American War
A. War of 1898
B. Spain
1. By 1890, Spain has lost most of its power
2. Guam, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines
C. U.S. interest in Cuba
1. 90 miles off of Florida coast
2. Sugar plantations attract US investors - $50 million
3. Jose Marti
b. Wants Cuban independence from Spain
c. Expelled from Cuba at 16
d. Organizes a revolution 1895
a. Educated journalist and poet
(1) Attacks US owned plantations
(2) Splits public opinion in US
(a) Sympathizers - William Randolph Hearst &
Joseph Pulitzer
D. War Fever Escalates
1. General Valeriano Weyler (1896)
a. 300,000 Cubans in prison camps
2. Jingoes
a. Americans who support going to war
b. Cuba Libre
3. Yellow Journalism
a. Media exaggerating stories
New York Journal
New York World
(a) Over 1 million readers
4. President McKinley 1897-1901
a. Wants peaceful resolution
b. Negotiates with Spanish government
(1) Deputy de Lome - Spanish Minister
(2) de Lome Letter
"...[Mckinley] is weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd besides being a would-be politician (politicastro) who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party."
c. Sends
USS Maine
Havana to protect
American interests
5. "Remember the
a. February 15th, 1898 the
b. Jingoes and media blame Spain
(1) Spain backs down
(2) April 1898 Congress declares war
(a) Teller Amendment - US will not occupy Cuba
E. McKinley Declares War 1898
1. Popular war
a. 200,000 volunteers
2. Theodore Roosevelt
a. Assistant Secretary of the Navy
b. Volunteers - Rough Riders
(1) San Juan Hill
(1) Orders Commodore George
Dewey to Philippines
(2) Dewey destroys Spanish fleet
F. Treaty of Paris (December 1898)
1. Spain cedes:
a. Cuba - Protectorate
c. Puerto Rico
b. Guam
d. Sells Philippines to US for $20 million
(1) Platt Amendment 1900
(a) Cuba could not make treaties limiting independence
(b) Cuba could not go into debt
(c) Navy base - Guantanamo Bay
(1) Foraker Act 1900
(a) US President can appoint governor to Puerto Rico
(b) Supreme Court - Constitution doesn't apply
(1) Mckinley prays - God answers
(a) US has duty to uplift, educate, and Christianize
the Filipinos
(2) Emilio Aguinaldo
(a) Former US backed freedom fighter
(c) US Territory v. 51st State
(b) Leads peasants in revolt against US
(3) Philippine - American War 1899
(a) US soldiers force filipinos into zones
(b) African American soldiers desert
(c) Costs US $400 million to win war
(d) Philippines become independent in 1946
V. Panama
10-12 months commercial
A. Province of Colombia 1903
2. Colombia wants control over canal
1. French company tries to build canal
a. Fail - investors feel scammed
b. US buys rights to canal for $40 million
a. US Organizes Panamanian revolt
(1) Colombia sends troops
(a) US bribes soldiers $50 and sends warships
B. Panama Canal
2-3 months warships
Panama Canal Time Lapse...
Panama Canal Diagram
VI. Latin America
A. Foreign policy shifts
1. Monroe Doctrine 1823 Roosevelt Corollary 1904
a. Monroe Doctrine states "Stay out of Americas"
b. Roosevelt Corollary states "US will use force to

2. Dollar diplomacy
a. President Taft 1909-1913
b. Throw money at our problems
3. Missionary diplomacy
c. Roosevelt - "Speak softly and
carry a big stick"
additional statement
a. President Wilson 1913-1921
b. US has moral obligation to help people in Latin
America who are oppressed
c. US should deny recognition to non-democratic
governments in Latin America
B. Mexican Revolution
1. Tests Wilson's Missionary Diplomacy
a. Porfirio Diaz 1876 - 1911
(1) Rules for over 30 years
(2) Friend of US - But very corrupt
b. Francisco Madero 1911 - 1913
(1) Overthrows Diaz promising change
(2) Murdered
c. General Victoriano Huerta 1913 - 1915
(1) Wilson won't recognize a "...government of butchers"
(2) Orders Marines to occupy Veracruz after
American arrests
d. Venustiano Carranza 1915 - 1920
(1) Wilson recognizes new government
(2) Carranza invites US engineers to mines in
Northern Mexico
(3) Viewed as a sell out - assassinated in 1920
2. Rebellion in Mexico
a. Pancho Villa
(1) Murdered US engineers 1916
(2) Raids on Columbus, New Mexico killing 17
b. General John Pershing 1916 - 1917
(1) Wilson authorizes 15,000 troops
- Then 150,000 more
(2) Carranza demands US withdrawal
(2) "Splendid little war..." -John Hay
Full transcript