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Walter Reed

Pascale Carrel, Megha Dhond, Rachel Pennella Seminar


on 12 April 2013

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Transcript of Walter Reed

Yellow Fever Walter Reed Created by:
Pascale Carrel
Megha Dhond
Rachel Pennella Biography Walter Reed was born on September 13, 1851 in Gloucester County, Virginia. He was the youngest of five children of Lemuel Sutton Reed, a minister, and Pharaba White Reed. Born: After receiving his medical degree, Reed travelled to New York City where he enrolled in Bellevue Hospital Medical College, and recieved his second medical degree by 1870. He was an intern at various hospitals in New York, until he became a member of the U.S. Army Medical Corps. He passed the qualifications in 1875, and was given to his first assignment on Willet's Point, New York Harbor. Later Education: Reed remained an avid member of the Army for the rest of his life, and was assigned to various positions across the country. On June 25, 1900, Major Reed, assisted by Dr. James Carroll, travelled to Cuba with the Medical Corps and met Jesse Lazear. It was on this mission that they hoped to discover the mysteries of yellow fever, along with determining its cause and a possible cure. And Yellow Fever Army Life Life in Cuba After Reed arrived in San Cristobal de Habana, Cuba, he immediately travelled to the yellow fever hospital. He worked with the Yellow Fever Commission, Jesse Lazear, James Carroll, and Aristides Agramonte (a cuban), day in and day out, but failed to find any microbe that was the cause of the disease in the first cases they investigaged. Strangely enough, it was this failure that helped them to find the cause in the end. After the first failure... The next cause of yellow fever that the team hypothesized was given to them with the help of Dr. Carlos Finlay, a "Theorizing Old Fool." He had the prediction that yellow fever was caused by a mosquito. With no other leads coming their way, the Commission began investigating. This was a great lead, except for the fact that there was one problem; you could not give yellow fever to monkeys, rats, or any other animal normally used in the lab. It was with this realization that Mr. Lazear and Mr. Carroll donated their bodies for the interest of science, with the hope that the cause of yellow fever would finally be discovered. Died: Unfortunately, Walter Reed passed away on November 22, 1902, due to the rupturing of his appendix. In his honor, the Walter Reed Medical Hospital was built, many years later, in Washington, D.C. Reed is forever remembered as the man who did the unthinkable; experimenting on humans. But at least he was successful. Later, Walter and his family moved to Charleston, Virginia, and he became immersed in the University of Virginia college town. He entered the school at the age of 16 and attended for two years. His second year was focused on medical study, and he completed his M.D. degree on July 1, 1896. Mr. Reed was the youngest person to complete a degree in medicine, which was quite an accomplishment, particularly at that time. Education: Experimenting... What the heck is it? And what's so yellow about it? Yellow Fever is a viral infection that is spread through female mosquitoes. It is caused by an enveloped RNA Virus. SOUTH
AMERICA AFRICA The disease is common in Africa and South America. About 90% of yellow fever cases occur in Africa and about 30,000 people die on yearly basis due to this disease. Most likely, yellow fever first occurred in Africa and was then spread to South America through the means of slave trade. SYMPTOMS Arrhythmias (heart dysfunction)
Bleeding (may progress to hemorrhage)
Decreased urination
Muscle aches (myalgia)
Red eyes, face, and tongue
Vomiting blood (Hematemesis) What the heck is it? And what's so yellow about it? It is called Yellow Fever because 15% of cases progress to toxic liver damage.

When liver damage happens, a condition called jaundice occurs, where the amount of bilirubin in the body saturates significantly. This is because the damaged liver is unable to function properly and therefore it cannot remove the bilirubin, a waste product of red blood cells that is yellow in color, from the body. The large amounts of bilirubin in the body cause the skin and white parts of the eye to yellow (jaundice). Therefore this disease was given the name "Yellow Fever." Prevention When visiting an area where yellow fever is common, these preventive measures should be taken:
-Mosquito nets should be used
-Mosquito repellent should be applied generously
-Skin should not be exposed (whole body should be clothed)

There is a vaccine for the prevention of yellow fever. It has been proven effective. This vaccine should be given 10-14 days prior to travel to an area prone to being infested with this disease. What the heck is it? After much trial and error, the team discovered that yellow fever was, in fact, caused by female mosquitos. Their discovery occurred on August 27, 1900, and was a huge step forward for all of science. Success! The Process NO CURE Currently there is no cure for yellow fever. This disease is cause by a flavivirus and therefore, like all other diseases caused by flaviviruses, yellow is incurable. Therefore, when yellow fever progresses to the incurable stages it becomes fatal. Though there is no cure for yellow fever, various treatments can be given to relieve the symptoms.
To help with the fever associated with yellow fever,acetaminophen and ibuprofen can be given as they temporarily reduce the fever.
When patients loose their strength (fatigue), they can have fluids delivered to their bloodstream intravenously (IV).
If kidney failure occurs due to yellow fever, then hemodialysis can be done. If patients loose blood due to the severe bleeding associated with yellow fever then blood transfusions can be given.
Therefore, there are various treatments to improve a patient's condition but there is no guarantee of survival. Coma
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
Kidney failure
Liver failure
Parotitis (the inflammation of the parotid glands)
Secondary bacterial infections
Shock COMPLICATIONS: (always comforting) DID YOU KNOW? *symptoms of yellow fever begin to occur 3 to 6 days
after being bitten by an infected mosquito
*yellow fever is diagnosed through a blood test
*there are three types of yellow fever: Sylvatic (jungle) yellow fever,
Intermediate(savannah) yellow fever, and Urban yellow fever
*it has 2 stages
*50% of people who enter the second stage of yellow fever perish
*in 1901, yellow fever was the first human virus to be discovered
*there are about 200,000 cases of yellow fever each year
*the fatality rate of yellow fever is 3%
*once a person is infected with yellow fever they have
life-long immunity to the disease
*Togo has the largest number of cases each year Prior to Walter Reed’s discovery, people conjectured that yellow fever was transmitted through household objects that came in contact with infected patients. In fact, when the majority of people were convinced that yellow fever spread through infected objects, Doctor Carlos Finlay, the local Theorizing Old Fool, proposed the theory that yellow fever was transmitted through mosquitos. People ridiculed this poor fellow for his unique theory, but Walter Reed decided to test it for lack of any other lead. Too soon, Walter Reed was called to Washington, so he left James Carroll, and Jesse Lazear in charge of carrying out his precise orders. The two fed mosquitoes on those with yellow fever, and then on eight volunteers, but none of them contracted the fever. It was then that they tested the most dangerous mosquito - who had fed on only the worst cases - on Carroll, and one other man, known as X.Y. Carroll, in his adventure, came close to dying, and, while in this shaky state, Jesse Lazear was bitten accidentally by a mosquito while in his lab, ultimately leading to his death. Carroll, on the other hand, recovered. When Reed came back from Washington, he approached General Leonard Wood, who in turn gave him money to build a camp in order to conduct a proper and air-tight experiment, and to buy men. Thus, in Camp Lazear, as the camp came to be called, seven men more were bitten by infected mosquitoes, and then kept in solitary quarters to ensure no other contact. All contracted the fever. Out of the eight total who fell ill, only one - Lazear - had died. Despite the scientific evidence to prove otherwise, many still believed that the fever was contaigious, and to that point millions of dollars worth of daily objects had been destroyed. It was to this effect that two houses were built in Camp Lazear. House No. 1 was a small room, with windows to prevent draft and all measures to ensure that no mosquito could enter. A stove kept the tempurature above ninety, and tubs of water kept the "air as chokey as the hold of a ship in the tropics". Three men entered this house. For twenty nights they same ritual: they spread the pillows and sheets - stained and putrid with the black vomit and discharges of men dead who once had the terrible disease, undressed, and lie in them - trying to sleep. Not one did get sick. John J. Moran had been bitten several times, though he did not get the fever. To this effect, he was put in House No. 2, quite the opposite out House No. 1 – comfortable, yet also not allowing any mosquito to get in, or in this case – out. Fifteen deadly mosquitoes were released, Moran was bitten seven times in thirty minutes, and soon after that he did come down with the fever. He also recovered.

Since people know knew how the fever was spread, they wanted to know what caused it. Carrol somehow got hold of the blood of a person who died from yellow fever, and ran it through a filter. What came through the filter was shot into three non-immunes, and two got the fever. This proved that the germ was too small for the finest filter available at the time. Walter Reed did the impossible - he tested on human beings. Not lab rats, or other animals, but everyday people. Certainly without this risk, yellow fever could not have been controlled or understood, yet all the same it is an amazing risk to take. It was by this series of events that at one point, there was not enough yellow fever to put on the points of six pins. Certainly, we have Reed to thank for this accomplishment.
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