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Ecozone Project, Atlantic Maritime
Transcript of Ecozone Project, Atlantic Maritime
the Atlantic Maritime are typically... The Atlantic Maritime is home to the Appalachian Mountains. These mountains are extremely old and were formed in the Paleozoic era. They are much more rounded and less jagged in comparison to other mountains because of erosion and glaciation that had taken place over the years. These somewhat dangerous cliffs are well known the have lighthouses on them. People generally call them rolling hills because they are not as high in comparison to other mountains. Appalachian Mountains The Atlantic Maritime has many islands and peninsulas. Prince Edward Island being one of the biggest ones. There are lots of islands bordering Quebec creating a crescent shaped bay called the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Islands and
History Coastal Plains Topography Geologic History Climate Vegetation Climate The climate in the Atlantic Maritime is typically quite wet, and cool. The weather from winter to summer does not change drastically in the east coast because of the winds and air masses. The Gulf Stream sends moist conditions in the current causing the cold air to meet with the warmth making a lot of fog. Also since it is a coastal climate we experience much more precipitation do to our nearness to water. The Atlantic coastal plains are relatively flat but generally have the richest soil in all the maritime which is good because the Atlantic maritime is known for having very poor soil. So any of the agriculture done in the maritime is normally on the coastal plains. Atlantic Maritime
Ecozone Annual Temperature Range: 25C° to 30C° Annual Precipitation Range: 1000mm to 2500 mm The geological history of the Atlantic Maritime consisted of layers of sedimentary rock being uplifted and folded in the Paleozoic era when Pangaea was formed. 300 million years ago the Appalachians were created and they are the oldest highland region in North America. Glaciation and erosion played a key role in the shaping of the Atlantic Maritime because the grinding of the mountains peaks created glacial valleys. After the last ice age the land sank and the ice melted leaving small inlets along the east coast that were flooded by the sea.
Appalachians The formation of the There was some volcanic activity during which created igneous and metamorphic rock. Plateaus of the rock contained metallic minerals, iron and zinc. Also in the sedimentary rock there is non-metallic minerals like coal. Vegetation The Mixed Forest Region is the natural vegetation for the Atlantic Maritime. The Boreal and Taiga Forest is also a small part of the ecozone. There are both coniferous and deciduous trees. A lot of species of plants and trees are on the endangered list because of the amount of forestry completed in this ecozone. Fishing plays a very large role in the economy of the Atlantic maritime, for 500 years the Atlantic was at the top amongst some of the richest and profitable commercial fisheries in the world. Fishing has been the base of the economy in the Atlantic Maritime for centuries until overfishing caused a downfall in the fish stocks. Atlantic Maritime covers the provinces of New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and the Gaspé Peninsula in Quebec. Home to over 2.5 million people in 1991, the ecozone represents 9% of Canada's population and 6% of its urban population. Contrary to most ecozones, more people live in rural areas than cities. Today, the urban population sits at 49%, significantly less than the national average of 76%. With Halifax sitting at the top rank with the largest urban area in the Atlantic Maritime, with 320 000 residents in 1991. http://geography.ridley.on.ca/CGC1D/Students/atlantic_project2/Atlantic_Vegetation.html The population density is 1321.60 people/km2
with a total population of 2,537,685 people
with Nova Scotia at 913 462,
New Brunswick at 729 997,
and Prince Edward Island at 135 851.
This region covers only 2% of Canada’s total area. The Boreal and Taiga
forest contains these trees... Spruce
Fir The Mixed forest
contains these trees... White Pine
Eastern Hemlock The Atlantic is well known for having many marshes, swamps and lakes in many forests because of the precipitation. GIS Component Two significant natural resources in the Atlantic Maritime is fishing... Location of Fishing
and Farming in Canada This GIS map shows the national parks, lakes, roads and rail, rivers, historic sites, and cities. These are climographs for Charlotte Town and Moncton showing temperature and precipitation Atlantic maritime has a very healthy resource sector: its best known for its forestry,mixed farming and fishing. Some environmental concerns surrounding the fishing industry are overfishing, uncontrolled foreign fishing, fish farming, and water pollution. Environmental concerns with farming, includes pesticide use and runoff. Appalachians The Importance of Fishing and Farming to the Canadian Economy The Importance of
Fishing to the Local Population Soil The environmental issue is that birds and other marine wildlife are dying from oil being spilled into the ocean. 300 000 birds die every year on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland from oil spills and oil leaks from ships in the Maritime region of the Atlantic Ocean. Oil is often illegally discharged from ships, through operational discharges such as tank washings, and bilge pumping, and as a result animals are being negatively affected, the most apparent damaged result being seabirds. Marine life is being polluted. People come together to address the problem: federal and provincial departments and agencies, the private shipping industry, oil industries (Petrol Canada, Ultramar, Chevron and Exxon mobile)and non government groups interested in protecting the environment. The top authority is Environment Canada. When there is an oil spill, environment Can
ada contacts REET (Regional Environmental Emergency Team) and they decide on the method to use. The benefit to the economy occurs when the oil is quickly detected and dispersed or treated, minimizing the damage to birds and fish. In this way fishermen will also benefit. The stake holders are the ship owners. The ship owners’ perspective is more about a practical solution; having a facility at port for dumping the bilge that is conveniently located, will not delay ships and is affordable for all classes of ships; along with having the fee to be included in the port fee. No, they have not been very successful. Charges are rarely laid and few prosecutions have been successful because they don't even know who is responsible for the spill normally. There is not sufficient patrolling, and very few surveillance flights. Until 2004, the Canadian Coast Guard responsible for offshore monitoring lost responsibility for marine pollution investigations to Transport Canada, and since the 165,000 L oil spill near offshore Newfoundland, only 3 surveillance Transport Canada flights have taken place, whereas The Canadian Coast Guard was about 3-4 flights a week. Also fines and enforcements are not at par with those of other countries in terms of oil pollution reduction and restraints. Some potential solutions are making ships clean their oil tanks on land, and providing a facility to do so. At the same time there would have to be increased year round enforcement, and education and awareness to the public, industries and government. To make sure oil pollution is cut back as a whole; fines would have to be laid. The solution most likely to take effect, is the law enforcement along with charges, which hopefully will prevent further oil discharge. The Atlantic Maritime Natural Vegetation is in the green http://assets.wwf.ca/downloads/wwf_northwestatlantic_seabirdsandshipsourceoilproduction.pdf The Atlantic Maritime Eco zone had an estimated 1991 Gross Domestic Product of approximately $40 billion contributing 7% of Canada's total. The Eco zone provides 12% of Canada's total resource-based employment, with the fishery and fish products sector accounting for 25% of this total. The Atlantic Maritime Soil Region is yellow My preferred solution would be that a facility would be provided where ships clean oil pumps, etc. on land so it is not being done in the water. I think this is the easiest and best way to end oil spills, even though it may delay a ships travel time. The soil in the coastal areas of the Atlantic Maritime is extremely excellent for agriculture and farming because of the rich humus created from decayed leaves and abundant precipitation. The humus holds onto moisture and stores many nutrients creating a thick top soil. The coastal areas of the Atlantic Maritime is considered to have the best lands for farming in Canada. One of the main things grown and is a big thing for the economy other than fish is the classic P.E.I potatoes... http://ecozone-experts.wikispaces.com/Atlantic+Maritime P.E.I Potatoes The soil in the inland's of the Atlantic Maritime are a lot less rich in nutrients and humus. The lack of humus is from the leaching affect taking away all the nutrients necessary for growing. leaching is when there is an excessive amount of water going through the soil in a downward motion creating a thin top soil which is not good for agriculture. Profile of
Leached soil... BIBLIOGRAPHY Human Patterns
Land Use & Settlement Patterns
Transportation Networks Fishing is a very important resource to the Canadian economy, because it provides employment as well as a large profit from Canadian fishing exports. Canada exports about 80% of our (seafood and) fishing production. Farming is also an important natural resource supplying the Eastern Provinces with beef and dairy products, fruits and vegetables. The market for this produce is largely Canadian, with some exports, especially of potatoes to the USA and overseas. Main Natural Resources Significant Natural Resources in the Atlantic Maritime Environmental Concerns Surrounding
Fishing and Farming In Canada, fishing is located mainly in the Pacific and Atlantic Maritime. In the Atlantic Maritime,75% of Canada's total catch happens in Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador and Prince Edward Islands.The leading producer of fish is Nova Scotia (about 30% of total production) followed by Newfoundland and Labrador. In the Atlantic Maritime, farming is concentrated in a few fertile areas; Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick’s Saint John River valley along the Northumberland Strait and the Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia. Apart from these areas, the land is too rugged for farming. Fishing is a very important natural resource to the local population, because it provides the community with employment, through fish processing plants, shipbuilding, and fishing itself. Farming supplies jobs to the local population, in the planting, harvesting and shipping of produce, also there are processing plants in P.E.I. for french-fries and hash browns. Farmland covers 9% of the Atlantic maritime ecozone. Agricultural activity is concentrated in a few fertile areas: Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick’s Saint John River valley, along the Northumberland Strait and the Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia. Of all Canada’s provinces, Prince Edward Island, called the “Garden of the Gulf,” still uses almost half of its land area for agricultural purposes. Farming is the leading industry on Prince Edward Island; potatoes are its best-known crop. The island also supports grain and dairy farms. Photos of the Atlantic Maritime Recently the Atlantic region attracted a large share of recent immigrants who came to Canada between 2001 and 2006. According to the Canada 2006 Census, during this period, an estimated 13,500 recent immigrants settled in the Atlantic region, or 1.2% of the 1.1 million new Canadian immigrants. The Ethnic Origins of New Brunswick: BROUGHT TO YOU BY... Stella MacDonald Mackenzie Erwin & Amy Covell Air ports: Fredericton, Saint John, Charlotte Town, and Deer Lake each handle approximately 200,000 passengers annually. Their Air services are very crucial because of the amount of goods they need to be exported and with many tourists coming and going. Airports in Atlantic Canada handle over 60 Kg of goods every year and over 6 million passengers, and with this;Halifax, St. John’s, and Moncton handling over 80% of the passengers and 98% of the goods. and farming... Fish Farming Forestry http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/atlas/themes.aspx?id=atlantic&sub=atlantic_industry_fisheries&lang=En http://www.ats-sea.agr.gc.ca/sea-mer/ind-eng.htm http://alaska.usgs.gov/science/biology/seabirds_foragefish/photogallery/Picture_of_Month/pom.php?pomid=22 Human
Patterns GDP Land Use & Settlement Immigration Trends Fishing Agriculture Transportation
Networks Some barriers to progress in addressing this problem, is access to people that are in power to make a change. Also, this is a problem that will take time and a decent amount of effort to fix, because the problem relies on more than big ships polluting, (although this is the most significant), but also small amounts of oil are being discharged into the ocean that are unknown, everyday. Oil Spills Have Any Solutions
Been Successful? Issue Dawn Soap This company has been helping the environment for 25 years with a campaign that stood for trying to reduce oil spills. It was discovered that Dawn Dish Soap contains the perfect formula for helping take oil of animals specifically birds. It is called the 'Make a Difference' campaign. Gas & Oil Agriculture is a huge impact to Canada's economy having a total value of $ 34 098 000 000 for Canada.
The Value for Atlantic maritime is $1 226 000 000. The total exports for fishing for Canada were $4 446 000 000 but the Value of Catch was $2 297 000 000. The East coast has the highest percentage of total catch and the Value of Catch is $1 854 000 000. How Valuable? Since it is happening in such ‘‘small’’ amounts, it is hard to determine from which ship the oil came from, and unfortunately there is more oil being dumped into the ocean daily and slowly, than from large oil spills that happen every several years and catch the public eye. Currently, no one wants to be responsible for the cost to open and operate these facilities, on top of that, ships prefer to dump oil and continue along their route instead of spending the time to properly discharge on land. Stopping illegal oil discharge into the ocean completely, is unlikely to happen because one cannot control all the merchant boats, and other boats that are contributing to this pollution problem. Railways:
In Atlantic Maritime there is one class 1 railway
that provides twice daily double-stack container rail service between the Port of Halifax, the CN intermodal facility in Moncton that also connects to Saint John and it's major terminals in Montreal, Toronto and Chicago. Marine Ports:
The Marine Ports in The Atlantic Maritime are very important the their national trade system, And with St-Johns being one of the highest ranked marine port in Atlantic Canada and The Port of Halifax is Canada’s third busiest container port, keeping up this source of transportation is crucial. Ferry Services:
For Newfoundland & Labrador, ferry services provides the crucial economic and social link to mainland Canada. On a yearly basis, the Marine Atlantic service between Newfoundland & Labrador and Nova Scotia carries over 400,000 passengers, more than 135,000 passenger vehicles, and more than 88,000 commercial vehicles through Port aux Basques and Argentina. Also Prince Edward Island and Caribou, Nova Scotia carries more than 165,000 vehicles and 400,000 passengers annually. This ferry service contributes approximately $27 million each year to the Island’s economy. Highways:
There are over 1.3 million registered passenger
vehicles and over 40,000 registered trucks, and two
major intercity bus lines in Atlantic Canada. They
operate on 55,000 km of provincially maintained
roads and highways, including nearly 8,300 bridges.
This also includes 4,700 km of National Highway
System highways and intermodal linkages. The transportation in the Atlantic maritime consists of: Ferry's, air ports, marine ports,highways and railways.