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The skeleton

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carina donnerbauer

on 19 February 2014

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Transcript of The skeleton

The skeleton
Axial Skeleton :
Function:

supports and protects the organs in the dorsal and ventral cavities
creates a surface for the attachment of muscles
central core of the human body housing
protects vital organs
consists of 80 bones :
29 bones in the head -
(8 cranial and 14 facial bones)
7 accociated bones
(6 auditory ossicles and the Hyoid Bone)
25 bones of the thorax
(the sternum and 24 ribs)
26 bones in the vertebral column
(24 vertebrae, the sacrum and the coccyx)

Structure:
Appendicular Skeleton
Structure
contains 126 bones
4 pectoral Gridle
(2Clavicle and 2 scapula)
6 Arm and Forearm
(2 Humerus; 2 Ulna and 2 Radius)
58 Hands
(16 Carpals, 10 Metacarpal, 28 Phalanges and 4 Sesamoid)
2 Pelvis
(2 Coxae)
8 Tight and leg
(2 Femur, 2 Tibia, 2 Patella and 2 Fibula)
56 Feet
(14 Tarsals, 10 Metatarsals, 28 Phalanges and 4 Sesamoid)

Function
Is a unfused skeleton --> greater range of motion
locomotion
also protects some of the major organs

Bones
Types of bones
Major bones
Long Bones
found in the limbs
body is longer than wide
consists of:
growth plates at either end
hard outer surface of compact bone
a spongy inner (-->cancellous bone containing bone marrow)
ends of bone are covered in hyaline cartilage --> protection and shock absorbtion.
longest bones in the body
(e.g. Femur, Humerus and Tibia)
Sometimes as well very small
(e.g. Metacarpals, Metatarsals and Phalanges)

Femur
- long bone
Short bones

approximately wide as long (e.g. Carpals and Tarsals as well as the wrist and foot bones)
consist of:
thin layer of compact
hard bone with cancellous bone
relatively large amounts of bone marrow.
Provides support and stability with little movement.

Flat bone

strong, flat plates
(e.g. Scapula (shoulder blade), Sternum (breast bone), Cranium (skull), Pelvis and Ribs)
Provide protection to the bodies vital organs
Base for muscular attachment
Anterior and posterior surfaces are formed of compact bone to provide strength for protection with the centre consisiting of cancellous (spongy) bone and varying amounts of bone marrow. In adults, the highest number of red blood cells are formed in flat bones.

Scapula
- flat bone
Irregular bones
non-uniform shape --> do not fall into any other category
(e.g. Vertebrae, Sacrum and Mandible (lower jaw))
consist of:
cancellous bone
thin outer layer of compact bone

Sesamoid bones
short or irregular, imbedded in a tendon
(e.g.Patella (knee cap) which sits within the Patella or Quadriceps tendon, Pisiform (smallest of the Carpals) and the two small bones at the base of the 1st Metatarsal)
Present in a tendon where it passes over a joint which serves to protect the tendon.

Vertebrae - irregular bone

Patella - sesamoid bone
connect phalanges to ankle joint
--> support the movement of toes
Tarsals
provide balance
posture when executing a walk or a run
--> provide movement in the foot
Metatarsal
The foot bones
forms a connection between the leg and the foot
-->body weight may be transferred from the ankle to the leg --> enables a person to walk and maintain balance
movements of the ankle
together with the calcaneus it facilitates the movements of the foot.
Talus
The leg bones
Hand bones
supports the entire skeletal system
helps in our leg movement.
Femur
knee extension.
increases the leverage
--> tendon can exert on the femur by increasing the angle at which it acts
Patella
Tibia (shin bone)
bears much of the body's weight
essential for movement
thinner than the tibia (its partner bone)
--> not able to carry much weight
supports a bit
acts as a stabilizing bone, manly for the ankle
Fibula
supports the arm of the upper extremity
essential in movement of muscles
Humerus:
support the muscles in the arm, allowing it to move.
Radius and Ulna
Protection of organs (digesting and reproduction)
supports by transmitting weight from the axial skeleton to the lower limbs
provides attachments for the muscles which control the lower limbs
Pelvis:
The skull
The arm bones

protects and contains the brain
Cranium
encase and protect the chest cavity
(e.g. heart and the lungs)
Ribs:
protects area right above your heart and lungs
forms the anterior part of the rib cage

Sternum:
The thorax
provides strong and mobile attachment for the arms
Clavicle
aids in upper limb movement and stability
Scapula:
supports the body's frame
-->keeps it standing upright
protects spinal
connects the head to the rest of the body

Vertebral column
and their functions
provides support to the body
holds internal organs in their place
vertebral column makes the body for standing erect
cavities, or hollow spaces of the skeleton hold organs within them.
(e.g. the skull holds the brain and the chest cavity holds the lungs)
lower appendages, or feet, are strong and thick
--> support the weight of the entire skeleton
foot possesses an arch to enable this kind of support

Support

encases vital organs within hard bones
--> protects them from damage
(-->cranium encases the brain, vertebral or spinal, column protects the delicate spinal nerves, bony thorax provides protection to the heart and lungs)


Protection
Bones:
act as levers during movement
provide solid structures

Movement
Blood cells are found in red marrow
Red marrow is a loose connective tissue that contains these blood cell precursors and the cells that they are making
red blood cells contain the protein hemoglobin
--> red colour of blood
Young people have red marrow
Old people have yellow marrow
Yellow marrow is a fat storage area

Cell production
Storage
bones contain red marrow
--> produces red blood cells
--> white cells
--> platelets
--> Minerals (e.g. calcium and phosphorous)
-->can be distributed to other parts of the body
--> supply our muscles with oxigen
white blood cells defend the body against infectious disease and foreign materials
Joints
Types of joints
Range of movement
A joint
connection between two bones
skeletal system is made of different types of joints
Each joint type has a specific method of movement
fixed and don't allow any movement
(e.g. joints in your skull )

Fixed Joints
allow small amount of movement
(e.g. joints between the vertebrae in your spine )

Slightly movable Joints:
Most of your joints are 'synovial joints'
movable joints containing synovial fluid
predominant in limbs where mobility is important
Ligaments help provide their stability
muscles contract to produce movement

Synovial/freely moveable:
hip and shoulder joints are the most mobile type of joint
--> allow to swing arms and legs in many different directions
Ball and socket joints
Hip joint
Shoulder joint
occur between the surfaces of two flat bones that are held together by ligaments
(e.g. wrist joint and ankle joint)
Gliding joints
Ankle joint
Wrist joint
enable movement similar to the opening and closing of a hinged door
(e.g. knee joint and elbow joint)
Hinge joints
Knee joint
Elbow jont
Bending parts at a joint so that the angle between them decreases and the parts come closer together (e.g.of the hand or foot)
Dorsiflexion: backward flexion
--> dorsum of the foot moves toward the leg
Plantaflexion: forwards flexion
-->dorsal surface of the foot moves away from the leg


Flexion:
Straightening parts at a joint so that the angle between them increases and the parts move farther apart
(e.g.straightening the lower limb at the knee)
Extension:
Moving a part(e.g. the foot) away from the midline
Abduction
Adduction
Moving a part
(e.g. the foot)
toward the midline
Moving a part so that its end follows a circular path
(e.g.moving the finger, shoulder, arm or hip in a circular motion without moving the hand)


Circumduction:
Rotation
Movement of a body part
(e.g. the arm)
around an axis
medial rotation -->movement toward the midline
lateral rotation --> movement away from the midline
Adduction of a the foot
Abduction of the foot
Rotation of the cervical spine
The vertebral column
Carpals:
create joints which allows the wrist free movement.
support and make structures for the movement of the hands
storing of minerals
(e.g. calcium and phosphorus)
Metacarpals
provide dexterity to the hand
stability to the foot
disperse body weight
bones, which make up the fingers and toes
Phlanges:
The End
provide:
dexterity to the hand
stability to the foot
disperse body weight
make up the fingers and toes
Phlanges:
Extension of the foot
Circumduction of the arm
Major parts of the bone:

http://www.teachpe.com/
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/94/Illu_long_bone.jpg/250px-Illu_long_bone.jpg
http://faculty.washington.edu/alexbert/MEDEX/Winter/ch262fg8.jpg
http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk/HumanBody-Images/Bones/Scapulae-PosteriorView.jpg
http://www.teachpe.com/images/vertebra_labelled.jpg
http://www.teachpe.com/images/jumpers-knee2.jpg
http://www.livestrong.com/article/115165-functions-skeleton/
http://www.cedars-sinai.edu/Patients/Programs-and-Services/Spine-Center/The-Patient-Guide/Anatomy-of-the-Spine/Images/468325_SPINE_CURVES_OF.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/22/Pectoral_girdle_front_diagram.svg/519px-Pectoral_girdle_front_diagram.svg.png
http://www.cliffsnotes.com/assets/277457.png
http://www.sandiegobiocranial.com/images/skull-1.jpg
http://www.raqs.co.nz/safedance/graphics/pelvis.jpg
http://www.mayoclinic.com/images/image_popup/r7_armbones.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Human_leg_bones_labeled.svg/436px-Human_leg_bones_labeled.svg.png
http://www.nburge.com/phs/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/4.jpg
http://physioworks.com.au/images/Injuries-Conditions/hip_joint.jpg
http://www.orthopedicsurgerybook.com/Images/shoulder-surgery-treatment.jpg
http://www.celebritydiagnosis.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/ankle2.jpg
http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/figures/A00019F04.jpg
http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/test_procedures/orthopaedic/knee_ligament_repair_92,P07675/
http://images.wisegeek.com/elbow-joint.jpg
http://www.livestrong.com/article/74183-types-synovial-joints/
http://cnx.org/content/m46383/latest/901_Skull_Sutures.jpg
http://www.pt.ntu.edu.tw/hmchai/SurfaceAnatomy/SFAupper/WristHand.files/DorsalWristJoints.jpg
http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk/Define/Adduction
Source
e.g.
when your head gets hit in boxing
e.g.
when doing a high jump
e.g.
protects your heart , etc. when you get tackled in rugby
e.g.
helps when throwing a ball
e.g.
helps us to throw a ball
e.g.
long bones help us to grap things like a ball or a racket
short bones carry our weight when doing a handstand
e.g.
helps us to turn around when hitting the ball in baseball
e.g.
helps us to run or cick a football
e.g.
helps us wenn we are running in a football match
e.g.:
when you're lifting a weight
e.g.:
when lifting your leg in ballet
e.g.:
for doing a plie in ballet
e.g.:
when doing the butterfly at swimming
e.g.:
when lifting to golf racket to hit the ball

e.g.:
when throwing the ballin baseball
Full transcript