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Political Participation and Voting

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Amanda Jordan

on 23 September 2014

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Transcript of Political Participation and Voting

Voting Rights
Political Environment
Traditional Political Participation
Politics on the internet have a huge involvement when it comes to informing the public
As of 2012, 7 out of 10 Americans read the news using the web
The internet has revolutionized the how fast news gets around to the public and how wide spread it gets
Can also be used for problem to be brought to light in form of online petitions
Internet is a great way for young politicians to have their voice be heard through social media
It is also encouraging online viewers to participate in offline elections
Online Political Participation
In 1920, women gain their rights to participate in elections, known as the 19th amendment
The latest expansion of voting rights was in 1971, which the voting age went from 21 to 18, known as the 26th amendment
In recent years, the participating in elections has have gone to below 60% as of 2012
Voting Right Continued...
One of the most important and consistent findings from surveys about participation is that Americans with higher levels of education, more income, and higher level occupations participate much more in politics than do those with less education and less income
Education is the most important factor when it comes to participation in politics
Income is important when it comes to making contributions
Socioeconomic Status
​As stipulated by the Constitution, the statrs retain control of voter registration and voting itself
Voter turnout in presidential elections in the last decade ranges from a high of over 70% of eligable voters in Minnesota to 45% in Mississippi, a 25 point difference
State electoral laws can create formal barriers to voting that can reduce participation
State Electoral Laws
Political Participation and Voting
Amanda Jordan, Felicia Handy, Nick Ponzio, Nicholas Jones, Havid Sempertegui
Activity to influence politics and policy
Voting is most common form of political participation
Before voting became standard riots and protests were popular
Occupy Wall Street and civil right marches
Contacting officials, publishing articles, and joining organizations
Elections are hallmark of political participation
Voting rights, also called suffrage or franchise, is the legal right to participate in elections
In early America, only white men 21 years of age or older were allowed to vote
It was not till 1870, when the 15th amendment was established, which allowed all male citizens, 21 and older, voting rights to anyone regardless of their race, ethnicity, or background
Political environments and state elections laws have increasingly proven to be even more significant when determining political participation
Whether or not people have resources, feel engaged, or are recruited to participate in politics depends very much on their social setting like what their parents are like, whom they know, what associations they belong to
A critical aspect of political environments is whether people are mobilized by parties, candidates, campaigns, interest groups, and social movements
A recent comprehensive study of the decline in political participation in the United States found that half of the drop off could be accounted for by reduced mobilization efforts
Registration Requirements
Registration requirements were introduced at the end of the 19th century in response to the demands of the Progressive movement
In some states, registration requirements reduced voter turnout by as much as 50%. Once voters are registered, they participate at very high levels- 80 to 90% of those registered have voted in recen elections
Registration requirements particularly reduce voting by the young,with low education, and those with low incomes because reigstration requires a greater degree of political involvement than does the act of voting itself
Other Formal Barriers
A barrier to voting that has grown more important in recent years is the restriction om the voting rights of people who have committed a felony
48 states and the District of Columbia prohibit prison inmates who are serving a felony sentence from voting. In 36 states, felons on probation or parole are not permitted to vote. In 11 states a felony record can result in a lifetime ban on voting
A relatively recent barrier is a requirement that voters provide proof of identity
Another barrier to voting has received less attention. In the U.S., elections are held on Tuesdays - regular working day
Voting and Registration Reforms
Election reform efforts over the past quarter century have focused mainly one making voter registration​ and voting easier and more convenient
These reforms are based on the premise that reducing the cost of voting should increase voter turnout
Election Day Registration: the option in some states to register on the day of the election, at the polling place, rather than inn advance of the election
Permanent Absentee Ballots: the option in some states to have a ballot sent automatically to your home for each election, rather than having to request an absentee ballot each time
Early Voting: the option in some states to cast a vote at a polling place or by mail before the election
Recent Restrictions on Voting Rights
In recent years, despite the general trend throughout American history toward encouraging wider political participation, there have been efforts in many states to reimpose restrictions on voting rights
More than half of the states- 31 as of 2012- have introduced requirements that would-be voters must produce proof of identity at their polling places
Diversity and Participation
African Americans
In the south during much of the twentieth century, white primary deprived African Americans of the right to vote.
By voting as a cohesive bloc, African American voters began to wield considerable political power.
Black political participation shot up, with rates of turnout approaching those of southern whites as early as 1968.
Persistence of black urban poverty
Black community has been considerably frustrated that their loyalty to the Democratic Party, even under African American president Barack Obama because republicans have not sought to win the black vote and Democrats take it for granted, neither party is willing to support bold measures to address the problems of poor African American
Latinos
For many years, analysts called the Latino vote “the sleeping giant” because Latinos as a group had relatively low levels of political mobilization
One important reason for this was the low rate of naturalization, which meant that many Latinos, as non-citizens, were not eligible vote. Among those who were eligible to vote, registration and turnout rates were relatively low
Today politicians and political parties view Latinos as a political group of critical importance, as they have become the largest minority group in the U.S.
Continued...
Rapid population growth, increased political participation, and uncertain party attachment all magnify the importance of Latino vote
Latinos have tended to favor the Democrats in national elections, though not as strongly or consistently as African Americans
Indeed, many Republicans believe that the tendency of Hispanic voters to be more socially conservative on issues of marriage, abortion, and religion than other groups within the Democratic Party
However, Obama’s failure to adopt immigrants during his first term led to disaffection among some in the Latino community
Asian Americans
Are a smaller group, compromising ___ of the U.S. population in 2010
California is home to ___ of the nation's Asian population and the group has become an important political presence
In terms of socioeconomic status, Asian Americans are more similar to ______
Asians often vote similarly to whites
Their diversity has impeded the development of group-based political power
They have been moving towards the Democratic Party in recent elections
Gender and Population
Today women register and vote at rates similar to or higher than those of men
The ongoing significance of gender issues in American politics is best exemplified by the _______
Women tend to vote in higher numbers for ____ candidates
Women are more likely than men to oppose military activities, especially war, and are more likely to support ________
On ____, women tend to want stronger action from government
The voting differences between women who are _____ and women who are in the _____ are almost as large as the difference between men and women
Continued...
One key to increasing the number of women in political office is to encourage more women to run for election and political office
They are just as likely to win an election as men, but are ____ likely to run for office, even if they are equally qualified
Women are evaluated more positively on issues such as education and health care, and are more skilled at striking compromises
The public views male officials more capable of dealing with national security and defense, and with crime and public safety
Age and Participation
Older people have much ____ rates of participation than young people
One reason younger people vote less is that political campaigns have ____ targeted young voters
Since the 1990's, several campaigns have been designed to increase the participation of young voters
Share older American's concerns about the economy and national security, but have positive views about the role of government
They have a strong interest in community service
Religious Identity

Religion provides organization especially around social issues
Black religious groups critical in Civil Rights Movement
Abortion and Same-sex marriage hinge around religious, moral beliefs
Mob mentality - Christian Coalition
Politicians may align themselves with religious groups
Continued...
People who are more affluent have the money, time, education, and capacity to participate effectively in the political system
Higher levels of political interest and psychological involvement in politics, such as political efficacy, are associated with individuals higher on the socioeconomic scale
Other characteristics affect participation, for example African Americans and Latinos are less likely to participate than are whites, although when differences in education and income are taken into account, African Americans participate at similar levels as do white
Continued...
People become much more likely to participate when some they know asks them to get involved
To be motivated to vote, individuals must be interested in the election and knowledgeable about the candidates. An important factor in analyzing political participation is whether there is competition, if there are two parties involved. A lot of gerrymandering is involved in this concept
An important source of variation in electoral competition is America’s unique structure for presidential elections. No other country uses an electoral college to mediate between a national or direct vote for presidential candidates and the actual winner
Works Cited
Lowi, Weir, Tolbert, Theodore, Margaret, Caroline. We The People:
An Introduction to American Politics
. N.p.: W.W. Norton, 2012. Print.
Thank you
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