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Ways to reduce impacts of cutting down Malaysia's Mangroces
Transcript of Ways to reduce impacts of cutting down Malaysia's Mangroces
down Malaysia's Mangroves Why are mangroves important and why do we have to reduce our impact on them? important breeding ground for many fishes, crabs, prawns and other marine animals, essential for sustaining a viable fishing industry. About 50% of fish landings on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia are associated with mangroves.
prevent saltwater from intruding into rivers.
retain, concentrate & recycle nutrients &remove toxicants through a natural filtering process.
provide resources for coastal communities who depend on the plants for timber, fuel, food, medicinal herbs and other forest products. can be harvested sustainably for wood, etc.
Mangrove forests are important because they:
protect coastlines against erosive wave action and strong coastal winds, and serve as natural barriers against tsunamis and torrential storms.
As a whole, Malaysia wetlands directly or indirectly contribute more than RM5 billion to the economy every year. Coastal wetlands such as the mangroves are of economic importance as a source of commercial timber. The Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve, widely regarded as the best managed mangrove forest in the world, has been sustainably managed for timber since the 1920s.
Worst impacts come from HUMANS! •Mangrove trees survive harsh natural conditions, but threats
from pollution and industry are an even bigger problem.
•As human activity around mangroves increases, more and more mangrove forestland is lost. Dredging coastal areas and filling them in to make them suitable for building also leads to destruction of mangroves.
•Artificial dikes cause long-term flooding that
the mangroves simply cannot handle. •Even the beauty of mangrove swamps threatens them. More tourists are coming to see them, and with more tourism comes more garbage, along with air and water pollution.
•Thousands of acres have been cut down to make room for the artificial ponds required by the shrimp industry. While short-term benefits go for the companies behind the shrimp business, the high losses in terms of environment and livelihood will be born by local people.
Attempt to reduce the impacts of
cutting down of Malaysian Mangroves Gazetting all remaining mangrove forests within forest reserves or protected areas.
Some mangrove forests are already gazetted such as the Matang Forest Reserve in Perak, etc.
But many other mangrove areas are still without any protection.
Devising well-balanced coastal land-use plans, such as maintaining sustainable limits in logging and other harvesting activities of its resources.
Retaining protective mangrove buffers along coastlines and rivers to prevent erosion.
Managing mangrove forests as fishery reserves to encourage environmentally-sensitive commercial aquaculture activities.
Raising public awareness and educating the community to discourage indiscriminate clearing.
More about what a local did.
Done by : Zi Jun, Hui Min, Alicia, Si Min Specific studies on its strategies
A parallel example is given by the 40 000ha mangroves of Matang(Malaysia) that have been managed for fuel-wood production since 1902 .
The operation provides significant employment to the local people, and the use of mangrove wood products for timber and charcoal makes a significant contribution to the economy of the west coast Peninsular Malaysia.
Matang also provides protection against coastal erosion, breeding grounds for fish, fish stakes, firewood and building materials.
•Malaysia has protected over 23% of its territory, exceeding a global target of 10%.
•Mangrove and inland swamp areas are priorities for additional protection.
Negative side:The rate of deforestation does not occur from the cause itself, but because there are no regulations controlling the rate of each practice. Possible Cause : agricultural development and aquaculture in the coastal wetlands forests (mangroves)
-This is beneficial to the people profiting from the business but does not benefit the locals, instead it deprives the locals of their natural source of living (fishing)
e.g. Penang shrimp ponds
Regeneration Artificial Regeneration
Artificial regeneration of mangroves involves hand planting of desired propagules and saplings at the selected intertidal area.
Planting of mangroves has successfully been done in Malaysia.
Most planting work has been done using the families Rhizophoraceae, Aviceniaceae and Sonneratiaceae.
Natural Regeneration Whether mangroves disperse through self-planting or stranding strategies will depend on the forest conditions (cut or not cut), tides, as well as the stability of the soils.
Harvesting too many trees from the forest diminishes stability of the soil, which causes the saplings to be washed away with the tides and makes natural regeneration impossible.
In Malaysia, a country with a long history of mangrove management, it is recommended that parental mangrove trees (standards) be retained during harvesting operation to act as seed bearers for the next generation in order to promote natural regeneration.
The minimum number of standards is 12 trees/ha and
these should be strategically retained in those areas that are poor in regeneration.
Artificial planting of mangroves in Asia and Pacific is promising to solve the problems of limited supply ofmangrove wood products as well as maintaining the overall Advantages:
cheaper to establish,
less subsidy is needed in terms of labour and machinery,
less soil disturbance,
saplings establish more vigorously,
– origin of seed sources usually known.
– replacement may not be of the same species removed,
– absence of mother trees may result in low/or no propagules supply
– genetically improved stock not easily introduced,
– excessive wave action may cause poor establishment,
– predation of propagules by macrobenthos (e.g. crabs, snails etc),
– less control over spacing, initial stocking and composition of seedlings.