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Transcript of Viktor Lowenfeld
taught elementary Art while attending Vienna Academy of Fine Arts.
Family fled to England, then America during WWII. In America:
Established Department of Art at Hampton Institute.
Became chairman of Art Education at PSU in 1946. Viktor Lowenfeld 1947-
Pulished Creative and Mental Growth aesthetic, social, physical intelletual, and emotional growth are reflected in a child's art. 6 stages of growth in art. "The process of drawing, painting or constructing is a complex one in which the child brings together diverse elements of his experience to make a new and meaningful whole.
In the process of selecting, interpreting, and reforming these elements he has given us more than a picture or sculpture; he has given us a part of himself: how he thinks, how he feels, and how he see."
-Viktor Lowenfeld "It may be that one of the basic abilities that should be taught in our public schools is the ability to discover and to search for answers, instead of passively waiting for answers and directions from the teacher. The experiences central to an art activity embody this very factor."
-Viktor Lowenfeld Adult: "Art" is a product
Child: "Art" is a process STAGE 1: SCRIBBLE 2-4 years Controlled Scribble Disordered Scribble Named Scribble Trying to find something "real" in a scribble or giving a child a stick figure to copy is as ridiculous as trying to teach a babbling baby the Gettysburg Address." Child looks away while scribbling
Long swinging movements
Paper is unneccessary 6 months after first scribble
Does not lift crayon off page
Aware of the boundaries of the paper and tries to fill in the page Adult's Role: Share in the child's excitement. Lines become edges of shapes
Scribbles are places purposefully
Process has changed from purely kinesthetic to imaginative thinking. Adult's Role: Should not try to identify forms or impart
our own interpretation. Other notes:
Color is secondary. Strong contrast aids child in seeing his/her marks.
Child may begin to notice that one color is different from another. STAGE 2: PRESCHEMATIC 4-7 years Head-Feet Schema Age 4- recognizable forms
Age 5- distinguishable as people, houses, trees
Age 6- emergence of a subject Color:
Multiple colors will be used, yet they have no relationship to the object being represented.
Child's concept of space goes no further than to center around him/herself.
**Therefore motivation must start with the child. STAGE 3: SCHEMATIC 7-9 years This is how Joey draws a tree. Human Schema Clothing replaces body
Body parts made up of geometric shapes
When separated from whole, body parts don't make sense Space Schemas Base Line Sky Line Double Base Line Fold-Over Base Line In a circle Mixing plan/elevation X-ray Space & Time Color "Realistic" color
Color schemas emerge for things like cars, bicycles, etc. STAGE 4: DAWNING REALISM 9-12 years The Gang Age Human Form
Elements of body retain meaning when removed from the whole
Greater detail and attention paid to clothing Space
Sky comes down to meet the land
Emergence of the plane
Objects overlap Color
Distinguish between red-violet and red-orange
However not between highlights and shadows STAGE 5: PSEUDO-NATURALISTIC 12-14 years Space
Greater awareness of depth
Awareness of environment
Student becomes spectator. Move from ego-centric art.
Attempts at perspective and size to show distance. Human Form
Greater awareness of joints and actions of the body.
Facial expressions begin to vary
Closer to correct proportion STAGE 6: ADOLESCENT ART 14-17 years Color
Begin to develope aesthetic tastes
Can begin to understand that color has an emotional charge.
Individualized reactions to color The Period of Decision Geared toward development of technique and skill. Product of conscious effort and well thought-out work Should not be afraid to bring in social issues and controversial subject matter. Development of an Artist