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A brief history of language teaching
Transcript of A brief history of language teaching
Why Latin displaced is important?
As Latin was displaced for other languages, its study took on a different function: The grammar and rhetoric analysis became in the model for foreign languages study from 17th to 19th centuries
And with modern languages teaching-learning?
As Modern languages began to enter the curriculum of European schools in the 18th century, they were taught using the same basic procedures that were used for teaching Latin. In that sense, textbooks were centered on grammar rules, list o vocabulary and sentences for translation. Speaking was not the goal, and oral practiced was limited to students reading aloud the translated sentences.
Taken and adapted from
Language teaching changing
Changes in language teaching methods throughout history have reflect recognition of changing in the kind of proficiency learners need
For instance: move toward oral proficiency rather than reading comprehension as the goal
Language teaching became...
As educators recognize the need for speaking proficiency rather than reading comprehension, grammar or literacy appreciation as the goal for language learning, there was and interest in how children learn languages. In that sense, teachers and linguistics began to write about the need for new approaches to language teaching, that effort for researching new approaches for languages teaching was known as
The Reform Movement
With the reform movement, speech patterns, rather than grammar, were the fundamental elements of language, developing some characteristics such as:
The spoken language is the primary
The findings of phonetics should be applied
Learners should hear the language first before writing
words should be presented in sentences and in meaningful context
translation should be avoid
Grammar - Translation Method
"To know everything about something rather than the thing itself" [Rouse, quoted in Kelly 1969: 53]
19th teaching innovations
The reform movement was the opposition of Grammar Translation Method, proposing the development of new ways of teaching languages
Also, it has been reflected changes in theories of the nature of language and of language learning. Then what we're going to analyze in this class is
how the language conception and language teaching methods have changed during the time
, through a document of Richards, J. C. and Rodgers T. S. (2001).
is the world's most widely studied foreign language, but 500 years ago was
for it was the dominant language of education, commerce, religion, and government in the Western world. However, in the sixteenth century French, Italian and English gained in importance as result of political changes and Latin became displaced.
Characteristics of this method:
Studying a language that approaches the language first through detailed analysis of its grammar rules, followed by the application of this knowledge.
Reading and writing are the major focus
Vocabulary selection is based solely on the reading text
The sentence is the basic unit of teaching a language practice
Accuracy is the emphasized
Grammar is taught deductively, it means by presentation and study of grammar rules.
The student's native language is the medium of instruction, it means mother language is used to explain new items
Grammar translation method dominated European and foreign language teaching from the 1840s to 1940s and, although it is remembered as a tedious experience, it is still used in situations were understanding literacy text is the primary focus of foreign language study and there is little need for speaking knowledge.
Oral proficiency turned into important
Marcel (1793- 1896) referred to child language learning as the model for language teaching.
Prendergast (1806-1886) observed that children use contextual and situational cues to interpret utterances and that they memorize phrases and "routines" in speaking
The Reform Movement was based on naturalistic principles of language teaching, such as people acquire the first language, this led to what had been known as Natural Method which turn into the Direct Method.
The teacher replaced the textbook in the early stages of learning. Speaking began to systematic attention to pronunciation. Known words could be used to teach new vocabulary using mime, demonstration and pictures
The Direct Method required teachers who were native because the learning was largely dependent on the teacher skills rather than on a textbook.
However, a study from 1923 concluded that not single method could guarantee successful results and then, The methods era was born, concluding that Cooperative learning, Whole language approach and Multiple Intelligences, originally developed in general education, have been extended to language settings
Richards, J.C. & Rodgers, T. S. (2001) Approaches and methods in language teaching (2nd Ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
Teacher Marcela Rendón Muñoz
Adapted only for educational purposes