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Psicologi al fronte

Università degli studi di Milano - Bicocca
by

Dario De Santis

on 12 July 2013

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Transcript of Psicologi al fronte

Psicologi al fronte
Progetto di ricerca di
Dario De Santis
«Il tormento di quest'epopea di guerra, che non ha precedenti nella storia, scosse ed angosciò tutta l'umanità; pose alla più dura prova le resistenze psico-somatiche di una grande maggioranza, specie degli uomini che si trovarono esposti alle emozioni più violente, dato dalla distruzione e dallo schianto straziante degli esplosivi; servì di incomparabile sperimento psicologico a tutti, specie a coloro che si trovarono in zona d'operazioni sotto la ferrea disciplina marziale, nei pericoli, nei patimenti, nelle privazioni d'ogni natura perversa».
Duse, E. (1919). La psicosi di guerra nell'Ospedale Territoriale Psichiatrico
C.R.I presso l'Ospedale Provinciale di Treviso. «Man», p. 238.
"Shell shock"
"Psychiatry is the disciplinary arm of the army"
315.000 in Germany
80.000 in Great Britain
98.000 in USA
Italian Psychology
V International congress of Psychology in Rome
presided by Giuseppe Sergi
First three chairs of
Experimental Psychology:
Sante De Sanctis (Roma)
Cesare Colucci (Napoli)
Federico Kiesow (Torino)
1905
"Rivista di psicologia
applicata alla pedagogia
e alla psicopatologia"
directed by
Giulio Cesare Ferrari
Giulio Cesare
Ferrari
1867-1932
Casimiro Doniselli
1876-1960
Combatant on
the Ortigara, medical officer
in the hospitals
of Modena and
Milano
The Great War
21 nations involved
70 million combatants
20 million wounded
9 million of deaths
Mass society produces a mass war:
"An explosion of modernity"
Unexpected, unpredictable
Chemical warfare (from 1916)
From a blitzkrieg to a war of position - without "battles"
"a laboratory to generate mass death"
Gestaltpsychologie
(Germany)
Behaviorism (USA)
"Psychology as the Behaviorist
Views it"
J.B. Watson,1913
"Experimentelle Studien über das Sehen von Bewegung"
M. Wertheimer, 1912
Substantial
and
radical change
Psychology
Mental tests
The selection programme
involved 1.727.000 soldiers
Laboratorio psicofisiologico del Comando supremo dell’esercito
During the Great War
1915-1918
Umberto Neyroz
1877-1927
Amedeo Herlitzka
1872-1949
Istituto per l’esame psicofisiologico degli aviatori
Vito Massarotti
1881-1959,
Red Cross Major General, director
of the Centro neurologico del I Corpo d’armata
di Milano
Aims
To provide a broad perspective,
presently still absent, of the development of Italian experimental psychology during the Great War

To analyse the psychologists'
contributions and to focus on the transformations of their social
role during the conflict

To investigate, mainly
through documents of the
archives, the relations and the
international connections of
Italian psychologists during the
Word War I and to understand
the specificity of Italian context

To verify if Italian psychology, still institutionally and academically weak, has been strengthened by the conflict, managing to show its practical and applicational
potentialities
Why and how
Archivio centrale dello Stato,
Ministero della guerra (1831-1944)
Aspi - Archivio storico della psicologia italiana
Centro interdipartimentale di ricerca dell'Università degli studi di Milano-Bicocca
The importance of archives
Digital inventory
of 12 archives:
Census of the archives
in Italy:
We have found out more than 100 archives kept by the heirs.
Among which:

Archivio Boschi, Verona

Archivio De Sanctis, Parrano (Terni)

Archivio Doniselli, Civate (Lecco)

Archivio Lugaro, Torino
Benussi Vittorio
Buccola Gabriele
Ferrari Giulio Cesare
Gemelli Agostino
Kanizsa Gaetano
Kiesow Federico
Massarotti Vito
Metelli Fabio
Neyroz Umberto
Pizzoli Ugo
Weiss Edoardo

find new information
understand the debate of the scientific community
evaluate the publications
discover the "personal" life of the protagonists
undertstand the birth and the growth of an idea or a theory
Archives are fundamental to the accuracy of historical research
Archivio Doniselli
(Civate, Lecco)
Casimiro Doniselli
1876-1960 Combatant on the Ortigara, medical officer in
the hospitals of
Modena and
Milano
Archivio Ferrari
(Aspi)
Searching "guerra"
in the digital inventory
Letter from Sergeant
Francesco Campana, 1917
Letter from General Luigi Cadorna
1919
Assegni tipo A - Area delle scienze psicologiche
Tematica n. 12 - M-PSI/01 - Prof. Mauro Antonelli

Studies on the Great War could become an important viewpoint from which to understand the dynamics that characterized Italian psychology in the first decades of the Twentieth century
Public archives
Publications
In conclusion:
www.prezi.com
"Psicologi al fronte"
on
Psicologia e ricerca sperimentale negli anni della Grande Guerra
Agostino Gemelli
1878-1959
Archivio centrale dello Stato,
Ministero della sanità (1872-1997)
Archivio centrale dello Stato,
Ministero dell’areonautica (1915-1973)
Archivio centrale dello Stato,
Ministero dell’interno (1814-1986)
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1
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Psychiatric casualties:
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