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Environmental Problems in Mexico:

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Juan Salvador Arreola

on 3 September 2014

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Transcript of Environmental Problems in Mexico:

Start
Desertification: defined as the persistent degradation of dryland due to the human activities that occur over that area

Article 1
Nowaday Mexico has lost 11 million acres of forest in 15 years. Tabasco a state in Mexico has lost 90% of its forest, which have been replaced by pastures.

Article 2
The Red Wind is a phenomenon that was first registered in Zacatecas, Mexico. This phenomenon was seen by a biologist named Nasif Nahle, who did 3 different trips to this place. This phenomenon has been expanded to more states in Mexico and some in the US.

Consequences
-Desertified areas suffer from climate change, which causes this areas to have an irreversible state.
-People migrate from desertified areas, having a lack of wotk on this areas causing even more damage to the place
-Rapid decrease of biomes, ending shelters and because of that diversity of living things
-Grasslands and forests produce 15% of earths oxygen, when we destroy these places it’ll be harder for us to find clean air and respiratory diseases will come
-This weakens the aricultural production of countries, because soils that are not desertified have a layer of humus or grass that retains water which makes fertile soil
-Less production of food, leading to world hunger

Video-Consequences

Bibliographies
Nahle, Nasif. DESERTIFICATION. 26 June 2004. 20 August 2014 <http://www.biocab.org/Desertification.html>.
Young, Elizabeth M. Desertification in Mexico. 6 June 2010. 20 August 2014 <http://www.sciences360.com/index.php/desertification-in-mexico-9810/>.
"Mexico - Mixteca Region (Oaxaca) – Fighting Desertification with Community Reforestation and Sustainable Agriculture." A New Hope for Positive Change and Sustainability. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Aug. 2014. <http://www.ecotippingpoints.org/our-stories/indepth/mexico-oaxaca-community-reforestation-mixteca-region.html>.
Rupp, Molly. "Expansion of Sonoran desert." Expansion of Sonoran desert. N.p., 3 May 2012. Web. 20 Aug. 2014. <http://www.geo.utexas.edu/courses/371c/project/2012S/Rupp_Final%20Project.pdf>.
Herrera, Guillermo, and Maria Vasquez. "Taylor & Francis Online :: Error." Taylor & Francis Online :: Error. N.p., 15 July 2008. Web. 31 Aug. 2014. <http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/.VAOX0MV5Mso>.
Juan Salvador Arreola
Bernardo Rizo
Joshua Maldonado

Environmental Problems in Mexico:
Desertification

Solutions
-Repopulate desertified areas so that these are worked
-Make farmers rotate their crops to alow certain areas to recover from the constant degradation and use of its soil
-Fertile soil only recovers 1% through 100 years therefore we need to stop desertification unless we wait thousands of years so that the soil recovers

Mixteca Region (Oaxaca)
Fighting Desertification
La Mixteca now looks like a desert, but in the past it was covered with forest.
-This region is known as
"La Mixteca"
.
-It is located at the
northeast of the City of Oaxaca
.

-The desolate landscape and desertification process are the result of generations of
bad land-use practices
.
For example:
The region became a
corridor for driving goats to market
, and excessive grazing prevented the recovery of forests.
Agriculture expansion
Cut for
firewood
and
charcoal
.
Description of the problem
Consecuences
Start using Chemical fertilizers
, boosted crop yields, but the benefits were short-lived.
Soil erosion and degradation
, compelling farmers to use ever-increasing amounts of fertilizers.
Depleted soils and high fertilizer costs forced farmers to abandon their fields,
extending their agriculture into newly clear-cut lands
. (Economic problems)
Deforestation and erosion accelerated
, and today the region suffers one of the highest rates of erosion on the planet.
Solutions
Reforestation
The local farmers start to plant trees. Some were willing to plant fruit trees to obtain a benefit from it.
Soil conservation
Construction of container
ditches
. The ditches retain water and prevent soil erosion. The captured rainwater is use to supply crops.
Sustainable agriculture
They use the traditional Milpa Farming System.
Use of organic fertilizers
Reduce dependence on chemical pesticides
Selecting seeds to improve local varieties of corn
Marketing their crops as “organic.”
By Juan Salvador Arreola Mercado
Vocabulary Words
Charcoal
: a porous black solid, obtained as a residue when wood is heated in the absence of air. (Carbon)
Ditches
: a narrow channel dug in the ground, typically used for drainage alongside a road or the edge of a field.
Graze:
is the process or consumption of plant life.
Famine:
extreme and general lack or scarceness of food, esp. within a large geographical area
Biomes: contiguous areas with similar climatic conditions on the Earth, such as communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms.
Jesús León Santos (founder of CEDICAM) and his daughter Diana with the compost at their farm.
Under the leadership of Jesús León Santos, farmers in the Mixteca region pooled their savings and purchased a plot of land just outside Nochixtlán which would become their headquarters (CEDICAM), allowing them to achieve greater autonomy and welfare.
Testimony
Example 2: Drought in Chihuahua, another type of desertification
link: youtube.com/watch?v=3hcKn1QaATs
Sonoran Desert
In the latest 20 years the Sonoran desert has suffered a great impact on desertification.
It occupies the territory of 120,000 square miles between Sonora, Baja California Nte. and Sur and part of the states of Arizona and California.
The urban development is decreasing constantly.
Most of the wildlife that lives in this desert are in danger and some of them nearly extinct. The reason its because they can not adapt to the extreme conditions of this environment.
Article 5:

Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Soils of the Semi-Arid Highlands of Durango, Mexico: A Laboratory Study
Article 6:
In the region of Durango the experimentation and application of fertilizers in arid areas occasion desertification, besides produce a great amount of N2O, in big quantities this gas is toxic for human beings. N2O- is a gas commonly used in medicine, likley known as "Laughing gas."


Becoming part of the United Nations Convention to Combat Decirtification (UNCCD)
Reduce the wild life to keep the biodiversity of the plants in the region
Avoid in every situation the use of fertilizers that damage the ground
Apply the programs of:
Planting grass or trees
Developing machines to work and/or irrigate the soil
Using fire to remove dead material




Solutions:
Consequences:
Desertification reduces the land’s resilience to natural climate variability
Soil becomes less productive
Vegetation becomes damaged
Food production is undermined
Desertification contributes to famine
Approximately 60% of Mexico is arid or semi-arid with vegetation dominated by N2 fixing shrubs, such as mesquite (Prosopis juliflora). Little is known, however, how these ecosystems contribute to production of nitrous oxide (N2O), a known greenhouse gas. We investigated this by adding inorganic fertilizer (20 mg ammonium (NH4 +) N kg−1 soil) to soil at different water contents (40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of water-holding capacity (WHC)) The CO2 production rate was 1.5 times larger for soil sampled under the canopy of mesquite compared to soil sampled outside the canopy of shrubs and lower in soil incubated at 100% WHC compared to the other treatments. Production of N2O increased with increased water content within the first day, but decreased in soil at 80% and 100% WHC thereafter. The production of N2O was 1.9 times larger for soil sampled under the canopy of mesquite compared to soil sampled outside its canopy.
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