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Airport Security

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by

Miguel Sagun

on 18 February 2014

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Transcript of Airport Security

Airport Security
Rapid Detection of Drugs and Explosives
Ion Mobility Spectroscopy
Ion Mobility Spectroscopy (
IMS
) is a trace detection technique
Ion Mobility Spectroscopy
1. Trace particles placed into sample chamber for
vaporization
2. Ions are gated into a
drift tube
with an applied electric field and opposing drift material
Ion Mobility Spectroscopy
3. The ion migrates through the tube. Drift time is dependent on its
collision cross-section
.
4. Differential
migration
to detector.
Ion Mobility Spectroscopy
Ion Mobility Spectroscopy
Expensive
Minimal suppliers
Ion Mobility Spectroscopy
Airport security currently uses automated computer tomography (Ct)
X-ray systems
Current systems have
limitations
Advancements in
chemical-specific
technology identification
Tunable Laser
Infrared (IR)
Raman Spectroscopy
Tunable Laser
Tunable Laser
Wavelength division mutiplexor
Difference frequency generator (DFG) crystal
Tunable Laser
Real time detection
Non-invasive
Can scan from long distances
Tunable Laser
Final thoughts...
Tunable Laser
Background:
Application:
Applicable to
carry-on
baggage security following X-ray detection
Explosive and drugs have similar structural properties
Instrumentation Process:
Instrumentation Process cont't:
Advantages:
Analysis
independent
of operator interpretation (i.e. pass-fail light)
Compact design;
efficient
analysis (~6sec)
Enhances
molecular specificity
of structurally similar ions
Couple
IMS with mass spectrometry
(MS) to increase specificity and sensitivity
Disadvantages:
Research Advancements
Information
programmed
into security detection systems
Thermo-Redox Technology
Thermo-Redox Technology
Electrochemical technique based on thermal decomposition of explosive molecules
Vapour and particle sampling
Focuses on trace detection of NO2 groups
Thermo-Redox Technology
Thermo-Redox Technology
Thermo-Redox Technology
Thermo-Redox Technology
Thermo-Redox Technology
Thermo-Redox Technology
Security of important areas, such as airports and transportation facilities
Detection of concealed explosives in cargo and vehicles
Sample is pyrolyzed (i.e. decomposed at high temperatures without oxygen or halogens)
Air with explosive sample drawn into capillary tubes at ~1.5L/min
Released NO2 groups come into contact with a membrane separator
Alarm sounds when both the signal strength and time requirements are met
Air Passes through a sample concentrator tube
Laboratory Evaporator for Sample Concentration
Selective absorbance of nitro-containing vapors via proprietary coating
Source: (2014). Laboratory Evaporator for Sample Concentration [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.directindustry.com/prd/stuart-equipment/laboratory-evaporators-sample- concentration-63431-694403.html
What is it?
EVD-3000+ Trace Detector
Source: Scintex Trace. n.d. "EVD-3000+" Retrieved from: http://www.scintrextrace.com/products_and_systems.html
Mechanism:
Thermo-Redox Detector
Source: Ghosh, T.K., Prelas, Mark A., et al. (2010). Science and technology of terrorism and counterterrorism. (p.394). REtrieved from http://books.google.ca/books?
Separates NO2 groups from the vapor
Flash Pyrolysis Reactor
Source: Flash Pyrolysis Reactor [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from http://www.leat.rub.de/englisch/Forschung/flashpyr.htm
Decreases potential chemical interferences from the sample matrix
Membrane Separator
Source: Introduction to Membrane Science and Technology [Web Graphic]. Retrieved from http://www.separationprocess.com/Membrane/MT_Chp01.htm
Signal strength and time period recorded and compared with a database
Sample passes through sensing surface of detector
Cycle of Explosive Detection
Source: Sun, Y. (2010). Field detection technologies for explsives. (p.34). Glandale: ILM Publications.
Advantages:
Disadvantages:
Relatively low cost compared to other trace analysis technology
Portable, handheld device
Detection time is within a few seconds
Unable to distinguish between nitro-containing compounds and identifying specific explosives (false-positives)
Low sensitivity - unable to detect RDX and PETN due to low vapor pressures
Applications:
Airport Security
Source: Hill, D. (Photographer). (2012, September 21). India Airport Security [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://hill-kleepup.org/blog/2012/09/21/so-you-think-airport-security-in-the-us-gets a-bit-zany-sometimes.html
Sources:
1. Sun, Y. (2010. Field detection technologies for explosives. (p.34). Glendale: ILM Publications.

2. Hannum, D.W., & Parmeter, J.E. U.S. Department of Justice,
The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center. (1998). Survey of commertially available explosives detection technologies and equipment. Retrieved from Sandia National Laboratories website: http://www.libertyreferences.com/expsurvey.pdf
Future Directions for Airport Security:
Detection of Explosives using Laser-Based Vibrational Spectroscopy:
DIAL:
Trace Detection
What is DIAL exactly?
Bulk
DIAL Method
GENIA Photonics IR Laser Components:
All fiber-based
Programmable laser
Fiber MOPA laser
Effectiveness is limited to chemicals with high vapour pressure
Disadvantages:
Advantages:
Conclusion:
Airport Security
Ion Mobility Spectrometer
Thermo-Redox Technology
Tunable Laser
Full transcript