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Grade 11 Bio PLant unit
Transcript of Grade 11 Bio PLant unit
Types Of Species
Types Of Plants Tissues
Photosynthesis is the process where light energy from the sun, carbon dioxide, and water are converted to sugars and oxygen that the plant can use.
This process only happens in the plant kingdom. Organisms that can make there own food are called Photoautotrophs.
The chloroplast is the equivalent to the mitochondria on a person. it makes the energy for the plant by using sunlight, CO2 and water. Sunlight is focused onto the chloroplast because of chlorophyl which is a chemical that turns plants green.
Invasive V.S Native
A Native species is a Species that has lived in and area for a great deal of time and is part of the basic ecosystem. This could also be called an indigenous species. An invasive species is a species that has been introduced to an area where it was not part of the basic ecosystem. This type of species is very dangerous as it can out compete the indigenous population for food and they would then die off.
Keystone V.S Introduced
A keystone species is a species that is extremely pivotal to the ecosystem it lives in. they determine the types and numbers of other animals in that ecosystem. An introduced species is a species that has been introduced into an area either for a set purpose or by accident. these species can either have a negative or positive affect on that ecosystem.
Indicator species and Monoculture
An indicator species is a very sensitive species that can give scientist a clue or sign of changing condition. An example would be that frogs are very susceptible to acid rain therefore a vital clue into climate change. Monoculture is the planting of the same type of crop for a while farm. This provides the benefit of lower labor costs and large harvests. an example of this would be a large corn field.
Both the Xylem and the Phloem are part of the Vascular tissue. The Xylem is used to transport water throughout the plant. The Phloem is used to transport food and energy from the leafs to the rest of the plant.
The Dermal (or epidermis) is the outer most cells of the cell. They are a closely packed group of many types of cells. there main goal is to keep water from inside the plant in there. This type of layer is usually found on younger parts of the plant. Ground tissue is the main support and storage for the plant. The Parenchyma cell is the bulk of this part of the plant.
Two main ways
The process of photosynthesis can be separated into two main sections. Light dependent V.S light independent. Light dependent is when Light from the sun is turned into ATP by the chloroplast. Light independent is when this ATP is transformed into glucose.
By: Braydon G.B
Dermal V.S Ground
The vascular system is the transportation system in the cell. The Xylem is a system of tube like cells that transfer water and minerals throughout the cells of the plant. The Phloem are the transport system for sugars and other plant made materials.
Translocation and Transpiration
Translocation is the transportation of minerals and and energy to the parts of the plant that cant make their own energy. Transpiration is the evaporation of water from the plant. This mainly happens when the stomata is open.
Parts of a plant
Root structure and function
The roots are the beginning of the vascular system. They move water and minerals from the soil up to the leaves.
Stems structure and function
Stems are the part of a plant that holds leaves, flowers,or fruit and they are the continuation of the vascular system that starts in the roots. They bring the nutrients fro the roots up the plant to the leaves and fruits.
Leaf structure and function
Leaves are the part of the plant where photosynthesis takes place. Their purpose is to make sugars for the plant so it can survive. guard cells are the cells that open or close the stomata.
Parts of a leaf
Perfect V.S Imperfect
A perfect flower is a flower with 2 sets of reproductive organs. An imperfect flower is a flower that is either male or female.
Function of the flower
The main purpose of the flower is reproduction. The flower of the plant is used to produce pollen and "sperm."
Pollination is the process where plants reproduce. the male plants produce sperm which is then transferred to a female flower which fertilizes the pollen.
Sexual reproduction of a flower
Asexual V.S Sexual
Being Asexual is when an organism can "split" and make a genetic copy of itself. This type of reproduction is very indicative to single celled organisms. Sexual reproduction is when two separate parents combine there genetic traits into one (or one set) of offspring.
This process is when a new part of the plant is grown from the parent plant. This is genetically identical to the parent plant
Grafting and cloning
Grafting is when you take 2 sets of vascular tissue and combine them into one. Cloning is when you make a genetic copy of a plant and grow it.
Cones and Flowers
Both cones and flowers are used in reproduction of the plant it comes from. A Plant can either produce a cone or a flower, but never both.
What is Adaptation?
Adaptions are when a plant change to better survive there environment like being able to survive colder temperatures during an ice age. These generally happen when a plants DNA changes.
Adaption of leaves and seeds
-Leaves has adapted to have chlorophyl. In more prehistoric times leaves used to purple.
-Leaves have a large surface area to allow them to get more sunlight for photosynthesis.
-Plants like dandelions have adapted seeds that can travel large distances and spread like wildfire.
Adaption of roots
Roots have adapted to be able to store carbohydrates and water for later use. Another adaptation is parasitic roots which attack other plants and seal there energy.
Adaptations of plants to there environment
a perfect example of an adaption of plants in there environment is cacti. There are in an environment with almost no water but still manage to survive.
What is tropism?
Tropism is curving or twisting of a plant towards an external stimulant. this could be the sun of a man made UV light.
Phototropism is when the plant moves towards the sun.
Thigmotropism is the growth in response to touch.
Gravitropism is the growth relative to a source of gravity.
Why plants are important
Everything we eat comes directly or indirectly from plants. Throughout human existence , about 7,000 different types of plant have been used as food by people.
Plants regulate the water cycle that helps distribute and purify our water. They also help move water from the dirt to the air through a process called transpiration.
1/4th of all prescription drugs come directly from or are derivatives of plants. Additionally, 4 out of 5 people around the world today rely on plants medical care.
What factors affect all plant growth?
One thing that affects all plants is sunlight. If there was for example a volcanic eruption that blocked sunlight from and area, every plant in that area would be affected.