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Transcript of John Bowlby
best known as:
death: February 26,1907 London, England the "father of the attachment theory" September 2, 1990 What Was His Theory? Bowlby believed that all infants form an emotional bond with their caregivers beyond the need for physical nourishment. He argued that when a baby responds to its regiver, it reinforces attachment and enables the child to develop healthy relationships later in life. Secure attachments are associated with lower levels of depression, closer friendships and more stable romantic relationships. (HHG4M Duotang, 9) John believed that there were four distinguishing characteristics of attachment (Attachment Styles, 2010) : THE BIOLOGICAL APPROACH Proximity Maintenance Safe Haven Secure Base Seperation Distress "The propensity to make strong emotional bonds to particular individuals [is] a basic component of human nature" (Bowlby, 1988) The desire to be near the people we are attached to Returning to the attachment figure for comfort and safety in the face of a fear or threat. The attachment figure acts as a base of security from which the child can explore the surrounding environment Anxiety that occurs in the absence of the attachment figure. The biological approach, also known as the ethological approach, is an approach that stresses that behaviour is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods. In this approach, the theorists use careful observations in naturalistic settings to come to conclusions. (HHG4M Duotang, 8) bibliography. EDUCATION John's Childhood John Bowlby was born on February 26, 1907 in London, England to an upper-class family. He was the fourth of six children and was brought up by a nanny as his mother believed that parental attention and affection would lead to dangerous spoiling of her children. At the age of seven, John was sent off to boarding school, as was common for boys of his social status. However, he later revealed that boarding school was a terrible time for him. Because of such experiences as a child, he displayed sensitivity to children’s suffering throughout his life and made a career out of it.
Bowlby studied psychology and pre-clinical sciences at Trinity College, Cambridge, winning prizes for outstanding intellectual performance. After Cambridge, he worked with delinquent children, then at the age of twenty-two enrolled at University College Hospital in London. At the age of twenty-six, he qualified in medicine. While still in medical school he enrolled himself in the Institute for Psychoanalysis. In 1937, aged 30, he qualified as a psychoanalyst. During World War II, he was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Royal Army Medical Corps. After the war, he was Deputy Director of the Tavistock Clinic, and from 1950, he was the Mental Health Consultant to the World Health Organization. Because of his previous work with maladapted and delinquent children, he became interested in the development of children and began work at the Child Guidance Clinic in London. By the late 1950s he had accumulated a body of observational and theoretical work to indicate the fundamental importance for human development of attachment from birth. IN CONCLUSION Children between 6 and about 30 months are very likely to form emotional attachments to familiar caregivers, especially if the adults are sensitive and responsive to child communications.
The emotional attachments of young children are shown behaviourally in their preferences for particular familiar people, their tendency to seek proximity to those people, especially in times of distress, and their ability to use the familiar adults as a secure base from which to explore the environment.
The formation of emotional attachments contributes to the foundation of later emotional and personality development, and the type of behaviour toward familiar adults shown by toddlers has some continuity with the social behaviours they will show later in life.
Events that interfere with attachment, such as abrupt separation of the toddler from familiar people or the significant inability of carers to be sensitive, responsive or consistent in their interactions, have short-term and possible long-term negative impacts on the child's emotional and cognitive life. John Bowlby's Legacy: (wikipedia, 2010) Attachment and Bowlby - John Bowlby's Theory of Attachment. (n.d.). Bukisa - Share your Knowledge. Retrieved September 16, 2010, fromhttp://www.bukisa.com/articles/119439_attachment-and-bowlby-john-bowlbys-theory-of-attachment
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Attachment Styles - Types of Attachment. Psychology - Complete Guide to Psychology for Students, Educators & Enthusiasts. Retrieved September 17, 2010, from http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/ss/attachmentstyle.htm
John Bowlby - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved September 19, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Bowlby
Issues in Human Growth and Development HHG 4M (n.d.). 09-28. (wikipedia, 2010) (wikipedia, 2010) (wikipedia, 2010)