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Spanglish, African Amercians & Asians in the UK
Transcript of Spanglish, African Amercians & Asians in the UK
presentation! African American Asians in the UK Spanglish by Helga Geyer,
Melanie Kashofer and
Marcela Hubert by Caterina Caira,
Catherine Lankes and
Lisa Bruckner by Daniela Jakubovits,
Rita Leonhardmair and
Martina Tampir Structure of Spanglish History Definitions SPANGLISH reportear for "to report" (informar)
remover for "to remove" (sacar) Different Ways of
Adopting Vocabulary United States Geographical Distribution AFRICAN AMERICAN ASIANS IN THE UK "A hybrid language combing words and idioms from both Spanish and English" "Spanglish is the trap, la trampa, Hispanics fall into on the road of assimilation." 1) phonological, morphological
2) semantic adaption or lexical
3) code-switching Food: tapas, taco, burrito, enchilada, flan
Business and technology: marketing, flash, CD-ROM, rating
e-mail = correo electrónico
links = enlaces
popular culture: ok, cool, Top 40 Morphological Adoption Formation of Spanglish Words:
verbs: + suffix -ear or -ar:
tipear (to type)
clickear or cliquear
telefonear to call
lunchear to eat lunch
chequear to check
watchear to watch
nouns: meeting = mitín
block = bloque English cognates
reportear = "to report" (informar)
remover = "to remove" (sacar) Code-Switching "I´d wash the floor de rodillas y le daba wax." False cognates:
realizar "to fulfill" + "to realize" Adaptation of lexical
items or manipulation:
tener un buen tiempo = ‘to have a good time’ (pasarla bien)
parquear ‘to park’ (estacionar)
voy a ordenar la comida = ‘I’ll order food’ (voy a pedir la comida for) Spanglish in the U.S.
British in Argentina
Yanito in Gibraltar Opinions: everybody has an opinion about language "Spanglish is unstructured and
threat to monolingual Spanish
code-switching = mark of
judgements merely opinions Spanglish = New Identity language expresses identity
high consciousness of when using Spanglish [family, close (bilingual) friends]
avoid with non-Hispanic people and non-Spanglish speaking Hispanics
“Spanglish is a cultural symbol, which represents ´la mezcla´…
shows diverse identity: " I’m not just a Hispanic and I’m not just an Anglo-American – I’m mixed and Spanglish represents that identity.” Oregon California George Lopez
with Mexican roots Washington Texas Arizona New Mexiko Florida great Cuban influence New Jersey Atlanta Chicago New York City Nuyorican Spanish of
Puerto Ricans Loanwords and calques "carpeta" (=folder) -> "carpet" (=alfombra)
"troca" -> "truck" (=camioneta)
"marketa" -> "market" (=mercado)
"puchar" -> "to push" (=empujar")
"hanguear" -> "to hang out" British in Argentina "camp" for "countryside" (=campo)
"I'll take the colectivo" for "bus" Yanito (Llanito) in Gibraltar vernacular language
based on Andalusian Spanish and British English
loanwords Yanito dictionary: aplay -> playing
esplotio -> explosion
esprin -> spring
rampla -> ramp/rampa
saltipina -> salted peanuts
santificao -> certificate/certificado More examples: Yanito: Hay un call pa ti.
Spanish: Hay una llamada para ti.
English: There's a call for you.
Yanito: I'm telling you que no puede…
Spanish: Te digo que no puedes…
English : I'm telling you, you can't…
http://www.gbc.gi/news/news-player.php?programme=63&episode=3778 Talk of Town Asian accents History Asians in Britain today not just "one" type of Asian accent
"Singlish" Indian accent Japanese accent Chinese accent Vietnamese accent Singlish Martina Tampir - the Spanish first arrived in 1513 - had established their first permanent colony in San Agustín, Florida by 1565 - the term Spanglish was coined in the 1940s by Salvador Tió Indians Chinese Japanese Vietnamese Indians Chinese Japanese Vietnamese • shortened words
• drop the ending -ed after /k/ and /t/
• a instead of an
• no distinction of "w" and "v"
• unaspirated p, t, k
• invention of new words
• plurals are not pluralized
• reduplication replaces "very" -
• use Indian sentence structure
• “the” and “a” are often omitted when they should be said (we are going to temple)
• one is substituted for “a” difficulty in hearing and producing /l/ and /r/ accurately
Japanese language only uses 5 vowels compared to 12 in English
problem with “b” and “v” berry ->verry
lip rounding as well as lip movements
in word final stressed syllable ending in “ar” the “r” is dropped and the vowel lengthened
final /b/ is likely to be confused with /p/
final /d/ is likely to be confused with /t/
final /f/ is likely to be confused with /p/
final /v/ is likely to be confused with /b/ or /p/
final /s/ is likely to be confused with /ʃ/ or simply omitted
/p/, which is confused with /b/
pronounce “th” as d
Vietnamese is a tonal language and speakers may try to use the Vietnamese tonal system or use a monotone with English words. They may also associate tones onto the intonational pattern of a sentence and becoming confused with such inflectional changes
vowels are softened characteristics: characteristics: characteristics nasal noises, high voice
tend to talk “clipped”
lengthen the “o” in no
pronounce th like a d
difficulties with consonants “l” , “r”
Mandarin doesn’t have articles such as the, a, an
no equivalent for possessive form of a noun in Chinese
difficulties with pronunciation of words that end in final consonant sound characteristics • dropping of past tenses
• omitting the verb 'to be'
• the past, the present, and the future are all the same.
• consist of words of it's own.
• special endings.
• it is short, very short
phrases of Singlish that you HAVE TO know:
Auntie = Use loosely to refer to an old lady
He sui mah? = Do you want to drink?
Oledy/Oredy = Already
Shiok = Good/delicious
Tapao or packet = Take away (food) characteristics: several obstacles in everyday life How words change our point of view Black English / Black Vernacular English
African American Vernacular English
Negro Non-Standard English
-> vernacular, non-standard, black?? - not a slang
- dialect / non-standard variety of English
- symbolizes community and cultural values
- no "improper" form of English
- AAVE = politically correct Origins linked to creole languages?
origins in English spoken in Great Britain and in the Southern United States?
-> wrong views and strong connotations
-> prejudices and mistaken understandings African American Vernacular English Phonology deletion of last consonant
beginning: th > d
the, they, that > de, dey, dat
within the word: th > f/v
nothing > nufn
author > ahfuh
brother > bruvah
end of the word: th > f/t
south > souf
tenth > tent
month > mont vocalization of l and r
steal > steauh
sister > sistuh
merging of vowels
pin = pen
stress on the first syllable of the word
Ju-ly Vocabulary Standard English words with origin in AAVE banana - yam- okra West African form + West African meaning bogus = fake/fraud
hep, hip = well-informed, up-to-date, be aware of what's going on
-> inclusion into standard varieties English form + West African meaning cat = a friend, a fellow
cool = calm, controlled
dig = to understand, to appreciate, to pay attention
bad = really good Loan Translations bad-eye = nasty look, hateful glance
big-eye = greedy Grammar Omission of the verb "to be" future sentences
"I don't care what he say, you __ gon laugh."
before progressive forms
"I tell him to be quiet because he don't know
what he __ talking about."
before certain adjectives
"And Alvin, he __ kind of big, you know?"
before certain nouns
"I say, you __ the one jumping up to leave,
not me." Omission of the 3rd person "S" no distinction between have/has, was/were, is/are
"I don't care what he say." Tenses Past Tense: "been"
He been married. (= he is still married)
Present Perfect: "done"
He done eat his dinner.
Future: "gon, gonna"
Events in progress: "steady, be"
She be working all the time.
He'll be steady making wrong decisions. Negatives haven't, didn't > ain't I ain't step on no line.
I ain't believe you that day, man. Double Negation I ain't see nothing. Negative Inversion Ain't no white cop gonna put his hands on me.
Can't nobody beat 'em.
Can't nobody say nothin' to dem peoples! The accent tag AAVE in real life First migrations back in the 1600 of many different classes (servants, sailors, soldiers) Migrants engaged in various economic activities, demonstrating high adaptability. After World War I new groups came. Also middle class and professional Indians came, such as doctors and merchants. Some set up Indian Restaurants. Opinions: threat to monolingual Spanish
Spanglish is unstructured and unsystematic
mark of bilingual competence
opinions First migrants were manly Cantonese and settled in seaports in the early 1900s (Liverpool, London) During World War II thousands of Chinese seamen were stationed in Liverpool. From 1980 students and professors arrived in the UK, and the number of students grew substantially in the past 10 years. First migrations of professionals, students and their servants in the late 1800s During World War II many Japanese left home for the UK Another wave of migration began in the 1960s, mainly for economic and business purposes Vietnamese immigration started after the end of the Vietnam War 1975. Early migrants were refugee boat people fleeing persecution by victorious communists. Another type of immigrants were students academics and business people. Gullah language "In un palacete de La Mancha of which nombre no quiero remember, vivía, not so long ago, uno de esos gentlemen who always tienen una lanza in the rack, una buckler antigua, a skinny caballo y un grayhound para el chase". Don Quijote de la Mancha in Spanglish 1. Written Media Spanglish and Media a) Literature b) Magazines and Newspapers Latina
La Opinión 2. Music - in LA: KLSX 97.1 - Reyes y Solís - Wisin y Yandel
- Shakira 3. Spanglish on TV Asian Community
British-Asians influences from west and central African languages
~ 250.000 speakers (2000)
no standard orthography African words used cootuh = turtle
oonuh = you
nyam = eat
buckruh = white man pojo = heron
swonruh = proud
benne = sesame
kumbayah = come by here (= Geechee) Phonology http://www.knowitall.org/gullahtales/activity/flash.html "th" (thank you) --> "t" (tank you)
"th" (this, that) --> "d" (dis, dat)
"ir" (bird, first) --> "uh" (buhd, fuhst)
drop last consonant of a word
don't use "s" to mark the plural Grammar no passive constructions
different formation of tenses
no inflection in third person singular Pronouns me = I, me, my
oonuh = you, your
e, him = he, him, his
she = she, her we = we, us, our
oonuh = you, your
dem = they, them, their Syntax Topicalization: "Da' big dog, 'e bite'um."
Front focusing: "Duh him cry out so."
Serial verb construction: "De dog run, gone, bite'um."
Reduplication: "Da' duh big big dog."
http://knowitall.org/gullahtales/tales/redhen/flash/gullah.html Topicalization: "Da' big dog, 'e bite'um."
Front focusing: "Duh him cry out so."
Serial verb construction: "De dog run, gone, bite'um."
Reduplication: "Da' duh big big dog." Idiomatic expressions Tek'e foot een 'e han = to run or leave quickly
Dry 'long so = without reason or explanation
Two-time-one-gun = a double barrelled gun
Tas'e 'e mout' = something appetizing to eat
Lawfully lady = lawfully wedded wife
Haa'dly'kin = barely able - three national networks:
Univision, Galavision, Telemundo - Spanglish TV programs:
Cristina, Sábado Gigante or Reventón Reventón: by Martina Tampir Afro-Seminole Creole spoken in Black Seminole communities in Oklahoma, Texas & northern Mexico
descendants of free blacks, runaway slaves and indigenous Americans (Seminoles)
~ 90% lexical similarity with Gullah by Helga Geyer "No such thing like an Asian community"
BBC: British Born Chinese
"Do Asian people need to act and think white in order to fit in or get on?"
41% don't agree
18% don't know source: bbc.co.uk BBC Asian
Music Popular Asian British:
Alexa Chung, KT Tunstall, Kunal Nayyar, M.I.A., Dev Patel, Freddie Mercury, Lakshmi Mittal, ...