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5 Themes Of Geography
Transcript of 5 Themes Of Geography
Jakarta , Indonesia
6° 12' S, 106° 50' E
Papua New Guinea
an hour flight from
a six hour flight from
an hour flight from
a seven hour flight from
3,2561 km from the
15,879.4 km from
15,797 km from
A closer look !
662 km2 of land area
6,977 km2 of sea area
Rivers In Jakarta
spans across two provinces ;
During the arrival of Europeans in Jakarta, the mouth was used as port city by the
Sultanate of Banten
Kali Besar River
Dutch Colonial Era (1603-1950)
, a fort was built by the river on behalf of the
Dutch East Indies company
as a trading hub.
Traditional Javanese costume
traditional shadow puppets
ondel-ondel (traditional puppet)
Jakarta's Colonial district
Rain season in Jakarta
A Closer look On The Landmarks !
a monument to commemorate the struggle for Indonesian independence.
Built in 1960 as delegated by Indonesia's first president.
structure is clad in Italian Marble and a gold foil is present at the top of the monument
the national mosque of
biggest mosque in
South East Asia
can fit 120,000 people
Built to facilitate
's muslim population (number one in the world)
built during the Dutch Colonial Era (rebuilt in 1901)
follows the neo-Gothic style
is located right across the
to promote religious tolerance among Indonesians
is the tallest building in Indonesia
building's design is described as late modernist
belongs to the
Bank Negara Indonesia
(Indonesia's State Bank)
48 storey high, 250 M tall
Located in downtown
Tropical Monsoon Climate
monthly mean temperatures above 18 °C /month/year
feature wet and dry seasons
The average annual temperature in Jakarta is 27.6 °C.
About 1855 mm of precipitation falls annually.
in Jakarta covers the majority of the year, running from
The remaining four months (
) constitute the city's
(each of these 4 months has an average monthly rainfall of less than 100 mm)
Jakarta's Wet Season
and why it's important to know !
Jakarta is extremely prone to flooding !
Jakarta lies in a low, flat basin, averaging 7 metres (23 ft) above sea level
40% of Jakarta, particularly the northern areas, is below sea level.
Jakarta is also sinking about 5 to 10 centimeters each year and up to 20 centimeters in northern Jakarta mainland.
Jakarta is an urban area with complex socio-economic problems that indirectly contribute to triggering a flood event.
Insufficient sewage due to clogged water ways
Attributed to Jakarta's urban sprawl and its growing squatter settlements
Jakarta's climate which can result in very strong precipitation rate
And it is a major problem !
thousands of people are displaced from their homes every year
causes major loss such as in 2013 ($3.3 billion)
outbreak of diseases such as Dengue Fever and Diarrhea
cripples Jakarta's economy as a whole
Why do we have to know?
as stated above, flooding has become not only a matter of physical characteristic, but also a human characteristic of Jakarta.
This major issue is something the people of Jakarta have to live with side by side.
more will be explained on this matter later on.
A closer look !
Historically, the performance consisted of shadows cast on a cotton screen and an oil lamp.
The puppets themselves are handmade and made of skin, hence the name
which literally means Shadows Of Skin in
a dance where a 40 kg headpiece is supported by the dancer's teeth to commemorate a battle between a legendary king and a lion demon.
It is said that the dancers are usually momentarily possessed by demons, hence the dance can only be done by a select few
Javanese cuisine is more indigenously developed and noted for its simplicity.
Some of Javanese dishes demonstrate foreign influences, most notably
Some Indonesians perceive Javanese cuisine as rather sweet compared to other Indonesian dishes, because of the generous amount of
gula jawa (palm sugar)
kecap manis (sweet soy sauce).
literally means fried
assorted fritters such as tempeh, tofu, yam, sweet potato, cassava, and chopped vegetables.
skewered grilled meat with peanut sauce
meat is usually chicken or beef to accomodate Jakarta's muslim population
Javanese is part of the Austronesian languages
There are speakers of Javanese in
(concentrated in the states of Selangor and Johor) and
The language is spoken in
, as well as on the north coast of
Madura, Bali, Lombok
, and the Sunda region of
, it is also used as a literary language.
Javanese is the tenth largest language (in terms of native speakers), and the largest language without official status. It is spoken or understood by approximately 100 million people.
At least 45% of the total population of Indonesia are of Javanese descent or live in an area where Javanese is the dominant language
Partially influenced by
Javanese is written with the Latin script, Javanese script, and Arabic script.
A basic demonstration of Javanese in a popular cartoon show.
people living around
(the colonial name for Jakarta) from around the 17th century.
Betawi is a
-based creole, and closely related to the Malay language.
The Betawi language has large amounts of
Hokkien Chinese, Arabic, Portuguese
It replaced the earlier
-based creole of Batavia,
Political & Cultural
ondel-ondel is performed to provide protection against calamities or for warding off wandering evil spirits.
2.5 meters tall with ± 80 cm diameter, made of woven bamboo. It is constructed in such a way so that it easily lifted by one person from the inside of the puppet.
Literally means Mask Dance
Grew popular during the 20th century on the outskirts of the city.
Was mainly used as satire against the colonial Dutch government and the growing social gap between the rich and the poor.
largely influenced by
Dutch,Portuguese,Chinese and Arabic cuisine.
Literally means Crocodile Bread
a Betawi two piece sweetened bread in the shape of crocodile. Roti buaya is always present in traditional Betawi wedding ceremonies.
The Betawi believe that crocodiles mate with only one partner; therefore, the bread is believed to represent the fidelity of married couples.
During the wedding, the bread on the bride's side is noticed by the guests and the condition of the bread is considered to represent the groom's character.
Bread and pastry-making was introduced by Europeans that settled in
Indonesian style steamed rice cooked in coconut milk
Nasi uduk literally means "mixed rice" in Betawi dialect, related with Indonesian term aduk ("mix").
The name describes the dish preparation itself which requires more ingredients than common steamed rice cooking and also varieties of additional side dishes.
Traditional Bridal attire
influence in bride's costume and
influences in groom's costume
Kebaya Abang None
mainly used by younger people during social events to signify their youth, hence the playful colours used as fabric
are an ethnic group native to the western part of the Indonesian island of
society , however has certain
society with strong roots to
Sundanese can be written in different writing systems, the Old Sundanese script (
Aksara Sunda Kuno
in historical times, and in modern times the Latin script and the modern Sundanese script.
It is the language of about 39 million people from the western third of Java or about 15% of the Indonesian population
Sundanese appears to be most closely related to
, and more distantly related to J
It has several dialects, conventionally described according to the locations of the people:
spoken in the provinces of Banten & some parts of Lampung,
spoken in Bogor & northern coastal area of West Java,
Southern or Priangan dialect
(Bandung & its surroundings),
spoken in Majalengka & Indramayu,
Northeast dialect, s
poken in Kuningan, Cirebon & Brebes (Central Java),
spoken in Ciamis, Banjar & Cilacap (Central Java).
A song performed in Sundanese
The Sundanese are of
origins who are thought to have originated in
, migrated though the
, and reached Java between 1,500BC and 1,000BC.
In 1961, Indonesian President
prohibited rock and roll and other western genres of music, and challenged Indonesian musicians to revive the indigenous arts.
The name jaipongan came from people mimicking of the sounds created by some of the drums in the ensemble.
Jaipongan was a way for the Sundanese people to take back their culture from the Western ideas and rid themselves of the colonial
and as the world became filled with more turmoil, it became a vehicle for moral, political spiritual, and social awareness.
The angklung is a musical instrument made of two bamboo tubes attached to a bamboo frame.
The word "angklung" was originated from
"angkleung-angkleungan", that means the movement of angklung player and the sound "klung" that comes from the instrument.
period and the time of the
Kingdom of Sunda
, the angklung played an important role in ceremonies.
The angklung was played to honor
, the goddess of fertility, so she would bless their land and lives.
The angklung also signaled the time for prayers, and was said to have been played since the 7th century in
Kingdom of Sunda
food tastes rich and savory, but not as tangy as
food, nor as sweet as
people has developed fondness for salted seafoods. Various fried salted fishes, anchovy, and salted cuttlefish is popular in
villages are abundant in freshwater fish.
the name "cendol" is related to, and originated from, the word jendol; in
, jendol means "bump" or "bulge", in reference to the sensation of drinking and swallowing the green worm-like rice flour jelly
Cendol is a dark-green pulpy dish of rice (or sago) flour worms with coconut milk and syrup of areca sugar.
pork is uncommon in Sundanese cuisine to reflect the huge influence of Islam
It is a dish consisting of Gourami fish where it is sliced in a way that it's body is split into wings, hence the name Gurame Kipas meaning wings/fan
The initial religious system of the
was animism and dynamism with reverence to ancestral
and natural spirits identified as
, yet bears some traits of monotheism.
spread later on during the migration of
, previously known as the
, are Indonesians descended from various Chinese ethnic groups, particularly
This migration was done both directly and through Maritime
Anti-Chinese sentiment reached its peak in 1998 where riots plagued Jakarta for days, targeting Chinese-owned shops.
Chinese workers await the preparation of their contracts by immigration officials at Medan's labor inspectorate, c. 1920–1940
Four major Chinese speech groups are represented in Indonesia:
Hokkien, Mandarin, Hakka
According to the 2000 census data, almost 90 percent of
(Catholic and Protestant)
Plays major contribution to the development of other languages in
The first Dutch Chinese Schools were established in 1892
cuisine is characterized by the mixture of Chinese with local Indonesian style.
modified some of the dishes with addition of Indonesian local ingredients, such as
(sweet soy sauce),
palm sugar, peanut sauce, chili, santan (coconut milk)
and local spices formed a hybrid
literally meaning "fried rice" in
can refer simply to fried pre-cooked rice, a meal including stir fried rice in small amount of cooking oil or margarine, typically spiced with kecap manis (sweet soy sauce), shallot, garlic, tamarind and chilli and accompanied by other ingredients, particularly egg, chicken and prawns
Foo Yong Hai
The omelette is usually made from the mixture of vegetables such as carrots, bean sprouts and cabbages, mixed with meats such as crab meat, shrimp or minced chicken. The dish is served in sweet and sour sauce with peas.
It is originally served with pork, but was switched to other alternatives to cater Jakarta's predominant muslim population.
a number of ethnic groups predominantly found in North Sumatra, Indonesia.
Linguistic and archaeological evidence indicates that
speakers first reached
about 2,500 years ago, and the
probably evolved from these settlers.
There are considered two main
Historically, they were written using
is now used for most writing.
members of the
patriarchally organized along clans known as
Batak people have a strong focus on
and a prominent position in the professions, particularly as teachers, engineers, doctors and lawyers.
Before they became subjects of the colonial
Dutch East Indies
had a reputation for being fierce warriors
Ritual cannibalism is well documented among
people, performed in order to strengthen the eater's tendi.
In particular, the blood, heart, palms and soles of the feet were seen as rich in tendi.
Tari Tor Tor
a prehistoric dance to symbolize gratitude to the Batak people's ancestors as well as to ask for protection against evil spirit.
's lack of natural resources has forced most people to partake in non-agrarian economic activities, as listed below.
Percentage Of Economic Activities
Trade, accommodation/hotel, restaurants 23.6 %
processing industry 22.5%
Finance, rental, services companies 22.08%
transport, communication 7.4%
electricity/power, Gas, fresh water 1.4%
farming, agrarian 0.3%
as country is biodiverse,
is situated in a flatland where flora and fauna can be considered scarce.
There are a few that are indigenous to the region, however, such is rather rare.
An indigenous type of the Salak fruit that is common in the
, hence the name.
It is however, slowly dying out due to lack of interest as well as scarce crop fields.
is the official mascot of
appears throughout many of Indonesia's provincial flags and national emblem as a symbol of unity, commonly known as
The national emblem
Jakarta makes up for it's lack of natural resources by having more developed capital
modern skyscrapers like
will be explained more later on
A notable feature of Jakarta's present road system is the toll road network.
Composed of an inner and outer ring road and five toll roads radiating outwards, the network provides inner as well as outer city connections
The five radiating toll roads are the:
Prof. Dr. Sedyatmo Toll Road
linking to Soekarno-Hatta International Airport
Jakarta-Tangerang Toll Road
linking to Tangerang and further to Merak in the west
Jakarta-Serpong Toll Road
linking to Serpong
Jagorawi Toll Road
linking to Bogor and Ciawi in the south
Jakarta-Cikampek Toll Road
linking to Bekasi and Cikampek in the east
Locations prone to flooding
List of Notable parks
Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (Miniature Park of Indonesia)
has 10 mini parks , each symbolizing a certain aspect of Indonesian culture
Lapangan Banteng (Buffalo Field Park)
Initially it was called
Waterlooplein of Batavia
and functioned as the ceremonial square during the
Netherlands East Indies
Jakarta is administratively equal to a province with special status as the capital of Indonesia.
The official name of Jakarta is
Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta
("Special Capital City District of Jakarta"), which in Indonesian is abbreviated to DKI Jakarta.
Jakarta is divided into five kota or
("cities" – formerly municipalities), each headed by a mayor – and one regency
headed by a regent (bupati).
The cities/municipalities of Jakarta are:
and one regency
Head Of Government
The head of government is the Governor
elected every five years
Basuki Tjahaja Purnama
As Jakarta is culturally diverse,it shares similar cultural traits with many of Indonesia's regions
as seen on the
ethnic group section
Jakarta shares most of its cultural roots with most of the
Provinces, as well as certain
Most of the people in
, a language indigenous to
Most of the food in
has seen influences from many different regions, most notably from the
as well as most of the
shares similar physical characteristics such as mean temperature as well as overall landscape of flatlands and tropical climate
Virtually all of Southeast Asia lies between the tropics,
Climate is similar
flora and fauna similar
Temperatures are generally warm, although it is cooler in highland areas
the oceans are shallow
ideal environment for fish, coral, seaweeds, and other products.
the region as a whole, except for the Philippines, is generally free of hurricanes and typhoons.
Views on Patriarchy
Due to a number of factors—low populations, the late arrival of the world religions, a lack of urbanization, descent through both male and female lines—women in
are generally seen as more equal to men that in neighboring areas like
Rulers and courts in areas who adopted
or forms of
promoted a culture which combined imported ideas with aspects of local society and as well as basic law and order needed to govern a society.
Due to the fact that these Southeast nations had gone through similar migration patterns, one would see many parallels in terms of art and cuisine.
busana baba nyonya
shows similar fabric and colour scheme
cut is similar and the skirt used draws parallel
Sister Cities Of Jakarta
a form of legal and social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states and even countries in
distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties
Mexico City, Mexico
London, United Kingdom
Auckland, New Zealand
Wellington, New Zealand
New York City, United States
Miami, United States
Las Vegas, United States
Washington D.C, United States
Johannesburg, South Africa
Cape Town, South Africa
Pretoria, South Africa
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Pyongyang, North Korea
Singapore City, Singapore
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei
Seoul, South Korea
Hong Kong, China
Taipei, Republic of China
Hotel Indonesia Kempinski
oldest hotel in Jakarta
Indonesia biggest electricity company
Jakarta Flood Canal
Jakarta is prone to flooding
physical landscape proves vulnerable
Jakarta Flood Canal
is a canal that was made to divert flow of
to outside of
instead of going through the city.
has partially reduced floods over the past few decade
Asian Network of Major Cities 21
a body representing the interests of several of Asia's largest capital cities around common themes of importance, including urban planning, sustainability and crisis management.
Bangkok, Delhi,Hanoi, Kuala Lumpur,Seoul,Singapore, Taipei
association of south east asian nations
encourages the free flow of investment within ASEAN.
ASEAN has emphasised regional cooperation in the “three pillars”, which are security, sociocultural integration, and economic integration.
Most members of ASEAN apply similar economic policies as part of the association's agenda such as
The ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Area (ACIA)
A Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT)
promote the free flow of goods within ASEAN lead to the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA)
ASEAN SIX MAJORS
ASEAN six majors refer to the six largest economies in the area with economies many times larger than the remaining four ASEAN countries.
Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur)
Shares similiar tropical monsoon climate
it's flatlands are similar to that of Jakarta's mountainless region
Provinces of Indonesia
like most provinces in Indonesia, the city is divided into
headed by a regent
headed by a mayor
as it is part of ASEAN's goal to maintain democratic harmony, most of the countries under its membership has a political system similar to one another, mainly consisting of legislative bodies and usually a head of state.
Places such as
lies in the flatter areas that are mostly rid of swamp areas, therefore most of the city's settlement lies along this region.
Undeveloped swamp areas along
is used as industrial sites due to the lack of settlements.
The area of
is mostly used as an export-import hub due to its relatively close proximity to the ports.
Settlements are not as common here due to flood scares in this region.
As Jakarta's tropical monsoon climate as well as its flatland landscape, Jakarta's architecture has changed over the years to accommodate to the city's concern on floods.
Most of the people's movement in Jakarta revolves around the many facilities that city has offered, such as :
most common form of private transportation due to its compact size and efficiency.
cars have become more popular among commuters due to the rather insufficient public transportations
TransJakarta is a bus rapid transit (BRT) system
"Auto rickshaws", called
,provide local transportation in the back streets of some parts of the city
are not an official form of public transport, they can be found throughout Indonesia and in Jakarta. They are especially useful on the crowded urban roads and narrow alleyways, which other vehicles cannot reach.
Jakarta's main seaport Tanjung Priok serves many ferry connections to different parts of Indonesia.
Jakarta's Soekarno-Hatta airport serves as Indonesia's biggest airport, serving both domestic and international flights 24/7.
Over the years,
has become an urbanized epicenter, thus flowing with many people migrating to the city.
rural-urban migration is common amongst smaller villages as it is a custom for the son of the family to go to the city and start a new life. It is called
has gradually become one of the biggest economy of
, many foreigners have migrated to the city, looking for investment opportunities.
Colonial era Migrations
First set foot in Jakarta in 1513 in search for spice, the Portuguese would later on build their own settlement in
Having spent over 300 years invading Jakarta, the
have built many settlements in the city, blending with the
As Jakarta is a significant scene of youth culture, many ideas are spread through ways of
Daily newspapers in Jakarta include
Chinese language national newspaper: Indonesia Shang Bao
English language national newspaper: The Jakarta Post, The Jakarta Globe
Indonesian language national newspaper: Kompas, Koran Tempo, Media Indonesia, Seputar Indonesia, Republika, Suara Pembaruan, Suara Karya, Sinar Harapan, Indo Pos, Jurnal Nasional, Harian Pelita
Business newspaper: Bisnis Indonesia, Investor Daily, Kontan, Harian Neraca.
Indonesian language local (Jakarta) newspaper: Pos Kota, Warta Kota, Koran Jakarta, Berita Kota,
Sport newspaper: Top Skor, Soccer
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