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5 Themes Of Geography

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Natasya Zahra

on 24 September 2014

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Transcript of 5 Themes Of Geography

5 Themes Of Geography

Location
Absolute location
place
Region
Physical Characteristics
Jakarta , Indonesia
6° 12' S, 106° 50' E

Relative location

north of
Australia
south of
Malaysia
west of
Papua New Guinea
east of
Maldives

time
an hour flight from
Singapore
a six hour flight from
Sydney
an hour flight from
Malaysia
a seven hour flight from
Tokyo
distance
direction
3,2561 km from the
Australian continent
15,879.4 km from
New York
15,797 km from
Toronto, ON
A closer look !
area
662 km2 of land area
6,977 km2 of sea area
Rivers In Jakarta
Ciliwung river
spans across two provinces ;
Jakarta
and
Bogor.
(97 km)
Brief history

During the arrival of Europeans in Jakarta, the mouth was used as port city by the
Portuguese
(1522),
Sultanate of Banten
(1527)and the
Dutch
(1619).
Kali Besar River
literally means
huge river
in Indonesian
connects the
Ciliwung River
to
Jakarta Bay
Brief history
During the
Dutch Colonial Era (1603-1950)
, a fort was built by the river on behalf of the
Dutch East Indies company
as a trading hub.
human characteristics
ethnic groups
background info
Javanese
Traditional Javanese costume
Origin
people of
Central
and
East Java
descent.
Wayang Kulit
traditional shadow puppets
ondel-ondel (traditional puppet)
Jakarta's Colonial district
Rain season in Jakarta
Downtown Jakarta
Landmark
A Closer look On The Landmarks !
a monument to commemorate the struggle for Indonesian independence.
Built in 1960 as delegated by Indonesia's first president.
structure is clad in Italian Marble and a gold foil is present at the top of the monument
National Monument
the national mosque of
Indonesia
biggest mosque in
South East Asia
can fit 120,000 people
Built to facilitate
Indonesia
's muslim population (number one in the world)
Jakarta Cathedral
built during the Dutch Colonial Era (rebuilt in 1901)
follows the neo-Gothic style
is located right across the
Istiqlal Mosque
to promote religious tolerance among Indonesians
IStiqlal Mosque
WISMA 46
is the tallest building in Indonesia
building's design is described as late modernist
belongs to the
Bank Negara Indonesia
(Indonesia's State Bank)
48 storey high, 250 M tall
Located in downtown
Central Jakarta
strategic location
Climate
classified as
Tropical Monsoon Climate
monthly mean temperatures above 18 °C /month/year
feature wet and dry seasons
The average annual temperature in Jakarta is 27.6 °C.
About 1855 mm of precipitation falls annually.
The
wet season
in Jakarta covers the majority of the year, running from
October
through
May
.
The remaining four months (
June
through
September
) constitute the city's
dry season
(each of these 4 months has an average monthly rainfall of less than 100 mm)
Jakarta's Wet Season
and why it's important to know !
Jakarta is extremely prone to flooding !
Why ?
Jakarta lies in a low, flat basin, averaging 7 metres (23 ft) above sea level
40% of Jakarta, particularly the northern areas, is below sea level.
Jakarta is also sinking about 5 to 10 centimeters each year and up to 20 centimeters in northern Jakarta mainland.
Jakarta is an urban area with complex socio-economic problems that indirectly contribute to triggering a flood event.
Insufficient sewage due to clogged water ways
Attributed to Jakarta's urban sprawl and its growing squatter settlements
Jakarta's climate which can result in very strong precipitation rate
And it is a major problem !
thousands of people are displaced from their homes every year
causes major loss such as in 2013 ($3.3 billion)
outbreak of diseases such as Dengue Fever and Diarrhea
cripples Jakarta's economy as a whole
Why do we have to know?
as stated above, flooding has become not only a matter of physical characteristic, but also a human characteristic of Jakarta.
This major issue is something the people of Jakarta have to live with side by side.
more will be explained on this matter later on.
A closer look !
Cultural traits
Performance Art
Historically, the performance consisted of shadows cast on a cotton screen and an oil lamp.
The puppets themselves are handmade and made of skin, hence the name
Wayang Kulit
which literally means Shadows Of Skin in
Javanese
.
Reog Ponorogo
a dance where a 40 kg headpiece is supported by the dancer's teeth to commemorate a battle between a legendary king and a lion demon.
It is said that the dancers are usually momentarily possessed by demons, hence the dance can only be done by a select few
Cuisine
Javanese cuisine is more indigenously developed and noted for its simplicity.
Some of Javanese dishes demonstrate foreign influences, most notably
Chinese.

Some Indonesians perceive Javanese cuisine as rather sweet compared to other Indonesian dishes, because of the generous amount of
gula jawa (palm sugar)
or
kecap manis (sweet soy sauce).

gorengan
literally means fried
assorted fritters such as tempeh, tofu, yam, sweet potato, cassava, and chopped vegetables.
Satay

skewered grilled meat with peanut sauce
meat is usually chicken or beef to accomodate Jakarta's muslim population
Language
Javanese is part of the Austronesian languages
There are speakers of Javanese in
Malaysia
(concentrated in the states of Selangor and Johor) and
Singapore
.
The language is spoken in
Central
and
East Java
, as well as on the north coast of
West Java
. In
Madura, Bali, Lombok
, and the Sunda region of
West Java
, it is also used as a literary language.
Javanese is the tenth largest language (in terms of native speakers), and the largest language without official status. It is spoken or understood by approximately 100 million people.
At least 45% of the total population of Indonesia are of Javanese descent or live in an area where Javanese is the dominant language
Partially influenced by
Dutch, Sanskrit
and
Arab
language.
Javanese is written with the Latin script, Javanese script, and Arabic script.
A basic demonstration of Javanese in a popular cartoon show.
Betawi
Origin
people living around
Batavia
(the colonial name for Jakarta) from around the 17th century.
Cultural traits
Language
Betawi is a
Malay
-based creole, and closely related to the Malay language.
The Betawi language has large amounts of
Hokkien Chinese, Arabic, Portuguese
, and
Dutch
loanwords.
It replaced the earlier
Portuguese
-based creole of Batavia,
Mardijker
Performance art
Political & Cultural

ondel-ondel is performed to provide protection against calamities or for warding off wandering evil spirits.
2.5 meters tall with ± 80 cm diameter, made of woven bamboo. It is constructed in such a way so that it easily lifted by one person from the inside of the puppet.
Ondel-Ondel
Tari Topeng
Literally means Mask Dance
Grew popular during the 20th century on the outskirts of the city.
Was mainly used as satire against the colonial Dutch government and the growing social gap between the rich and the poor.
Cuisine
shows significant
Tionghoa Chinese
influence
largely influenced by
Dutch,Portuguese,Chinese and Arabic cuisine.
Roti Buaya
Literally means Crocodile Bread
a Betawi two piece sweetened bread in the shape of crocodile. Roti buaya is always present in traditional Betawi wedding ceremonies.
The Betawi believe that crocodiles mate with only one partner; therefore, the bread is believed to represent the fidelity of married couples.
During the wedding, the bread on the bride's side is noticed by the guests and the condition of the bread is considered to represent the groom's character.
Bread and pastry-making was introduced by Europeans that settled in
Batavia (Jakarta),
the
Portuguese
and
Dutch
Indonesian style steamed rice cooked in coconut milk
Nasi uduk literally means "mixed rice" in Betawi dialect, related with Indonesian term aduk ("mix").
The name describes the dish preparation itself which requires more ingredients than common steamed rice cooking and also varieties of additional side dishes.
Nasi Uduk
Traditional Bridal attire

displays
Chinese
influence in bride's costume and
Arabian
influences in groom's costume
Kebaya Abang None
mainly used by younger people during social events to signify their youth, hence the playful colours used as fabric
Sundanese
Origin
The
Sundanese
are an ethnic group native to the western part of the Indonesian island of
Java
Predominantly a
Muslim
society , however has certain
Hindu-Buddhist
elements.
Predominantly a
Muslim
society with strong roots to
Hokkien Chinese
and
Arabic
culture.
Cultural Traits
Language
Sundanese can be written in different writing systems, the Old Sundanese script (
Aksara Sunda Kuno
) and
Pegon
in historical times, and in modern times the Latin script and the modern Sundanese script.
It is the language of about 39 million people from the western third of Java or about 15% of the Indonesian population
Sundanese appears to be most closely related to
Madurese
and
Malay
, and more distantly related to J
avanese.
It has several dialects, conventionally described according to the locations of the people:

Western dialect,
spoken in the provinces of Banten & some parts of Lampung,
Northern dialect,
spoken in Bogor & northern coastal area of West Java,
Southern or Priangan dialect
(Bandung & its surroundings),
Mid-east dialect,
spoken in Majalengka & Indramayu,
Northeast dialect, s
poken in Kuningan, Cirebon & Brebes (Central Java),
Southeast dialect,
spoken in Ciamis, Banjar & Cilacap (Central Java).
A song performed in Sundanese
The Sundanese are of
Austronesian
origins who are thought to have originated in
Taiwan
, migrated though the
Philippines
, and reached Java between 1,500BC and 1,000BC.
Performance Art
Sundanese Script
Jaipongan
In 1961, Indonesian President
Sukarno
prohibited rock and roll and other western genres of music, and challenged Indonesian musicians to revive the indigenous arts.
The name jaipongan came from people mimicking of the sounds created by some of the drums in the ensemble.
Jaipongan was a way for the Sundanese people to take back their culture from the Western ideas and rid themselves of the colonial
Dutch
influences.
and as the world became filled with more turmoil, it became a vehicle for moral, political spiritual, and social awareness.
Angklung
The angklung is a musical instrument made of two bamboo tubes attached to a bamboo frame.
The word "angklung" was originated from
Sundanese
"angkleung-angkleungan", that means the movement of angklung player and the sound "klung" that comes from the instrument.
In the
Hindu
period and the time of the
Kingdom of Sunda
, the angklung played an important role in ceremonies.
The angklung was played to honor
Dewi Sri
, the goddess of fertility, so she would bless their land and lives.
The angklung also signaled the time for prayers, and was said to have been played since the 7th century in
Kingdom of Sunda
.
Cuisine
In general,
Sundanese
food tastes rich and savory, but not as tangy as
Minangkabau
food, nor as sweet as
Javanese
food

Sundanese
people has developed fondness for salted seafoods. Various fried salted fishes, anchovy, and salted cuttlefish is popular in
Sundanese
daily diet.
Many
Sundanese
villages are abundant in freshwater fish.
the name "cendol" is related to, and originated from, the word jendol; in
Javanese, Sundanese
and
Indonesian
, jendol means "bump" or "bulge", in reference to the sensation of drinking and swallowing the green worm-like rice flour jelly
Cendol is a dark-green pulpy dish of rice (or sago) flour worms with coconut milk and syrup of areca sugar.

Es Cendol
pork is uncommon in Sundanese cuisine to reflect the huge influence of Islam
Gurame kipas
It is a dish consisting of Gourami fish where it is sliced in a way that it's body is split into wings, hence the name Gurame Kipas meaning wings/fan
The initial religious system of the
Sundanese
was animism and dynamism with reverence to ancestral
(karuhun)
and natural spirits identified as
hyang
, yet bears some traits of monotheism.
Islam
spread later on during the migration of
Arabic
merchants

Chinese Indonesians
or
Tionghoa
, previously known as the
Indonesian Chinese
, are Indonesians descended from various Chinese ethnic groups, particularly
Han
.
This migration was done both directly and through Maritime
Southeast Asia
Chinese Indonesian
Origin
Anti-Chinese sentiment reached its peak in 1998 where riots plagued Jakarta for days, targeting Chinese-owned shops.
Chinese workers await the preparation of their contracts by immigration officials at Medan's labor inspectorate, c. 1920–1940
Cultural Traits
Language
Four major Chinese speech groups are represented in Indonesia:
Hokkien, Mandarin, Hakka
, and
Cantonese
According to the 2000 census data, almost 90 percent of
Chinese Indonesians
were
Buddhist
or
Christian

(Catholic and Protestant)
.
Plays major contribution to the development of other languages in
Jakarta

Sundanese
Betawi
Javanese
The first Dutch Chinese Schools were established in 1892
Cuisine
Chinese Indonesian
cuisine is characterized by the mixture of Chinese with local Indonesian style.
modified some of the dishes with addition of Indonesian local ingredients, such as
kecap manis
(sweet soy sauce),
palm sugar, peanut sauce, chili, santan (coconut milk)
and local spices formed a hybrid
Chinese-Indonesian
cuisine.
Nasi Goreng
literally meaning "fried rice" in
Indonesian
and
Malay
can refer simply to fried pre-cooked rice, a meal including stir fried rice in small amount of cooking oil or margarine, typically spiced with kecap manis (sweet soy sauce), shallot, garlic, tamarind and chilli and accompanied by other ingredients, particularly egg, chicken and prawns
Foo Yong Hai
The omelette is usually made from the mixture of vegetables such as carrots, bean sprouts and cabbages, mixed with meats such as crab meat, shrimp or minced chicken. The dish is served in sweet and sour sauce with peas.
It is originally served with pork, but was switched to other alternatives to cater Jakarta's predominant muslim population.
Batak
Origin
a number of ethnic groups predominantly found in North Sumatra, Indonesia.
Linguistic and archaeological evidence indicates that
Austronesian
speakers first reached
Sumatra
from
Taiwan
and the
Philippines
through
Borneo
and/or
Java
about 2,500 years ago, and the
Batak
probably evolved from these settlers.
Cultural Traits
Language
There are considered two main
Batak
language groups,
Northern Batak
and
Southern Batak
.
Historically, they were written using
Batak script
but the
Latin script
is now used for most writing.
members of the
Austronesian
language family
patriarchally organized along clans known as
Marga
.
Batak people have a strong focus on
education
and a prominent position in the professions, particularly as teachers, engineers, doctors and lawyers.
Before they became subjects of the colonial
Dutch East Indies
government, the
Batak
had a reputation for being fierce warriors
Today the
Batak
are mostly
Christian
with a
Muslim
minority
Ritual cannibalism is well documented among
Batak
people, performed in order to strengthen the eater's tendi.
In particular, the blood, heart, palms and soles of the feet were seen as rich in tendi.
Society
Performance Art
Tari Tor Tor
a prehistoric dance to symbolize gratitude to the Batak people's ancestors as well as to ask for protection against evil spirit.
Socio-Economic Activities
Jakarta
's lack of natural resources has forced most people to partake in non-agrarian economic activities, as listed below.
Percentage Of Economic Activities
Trade, accommodation/hotel, restaurants 23.6 %
processing industry 22.5%
Finance, rental, services companies 22.08%
property 13.4%
services 9.3%
transport, communication 7.4%
electricity/power, Gas, fresh water 1.4%
farming, agrarian 0.3%

Resources
natural
Capital
Eventhough
Indonesia
as country is biodiverse,
Jakarta
is situated in a flatland where flora and fauna can be considered scarce.
There are a few that are indigenous to the region, however, such is rather rare.
flora
Salak Condet
An indigenous type of the Salak fruit that is common in the
Condet
area of
East Jakarta
, hence the name.
It is however, slowly dying out due to lack of interest as well as scarce crop fields.
fauna
Elang Bondol
is the official mascot of
Jakarta
appears throughout many of Indonesia's provincial flags and national emblem as a symbol of unity, commonly known as
Garuda
The national emblem
Jakarta makes up for it's lack of natural resources by having more developed capital
Infrastructure
communication
Public transportation
Dams
Construction
modern skyscrapers like
Wisma 46


will be explained more later on
Public Road
A notable feature of Jakarta's present road system is the toll road network.
Composed of an inner and outer ring road and five toll roads radiating outwards, the network provides inner as well as outer city connections
The five radiating toll roads are the:

Prof. Dr. Sedyatmo Toll Road
linking to Soekarno-Hatta International Airport
Jakarta-Tangerang Toll Road
linking to Tangerang and further to Merak in the west
Jakarta-Serpong Toll Road
linking to Serpong
Jagorawi Toll Road
linking to Bogor and Ciawi in the south
Jakarta-Cikampek Toll Road
linking to Bekasi and Cikampek in the east
Locations prone to flooding
Green Space/Parks
List of Notable parks
Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (Miniature Park of Indonesia)
has 10 mini parks , each symbolizing a certain aspect of Indonesian culture
Lapangan Banteng (Buffalo Field Park)
Initially it was called
Waterlooplein of Batavia
and functioned as the ceremonial square during the
Netherlands East Indies
colonial period.

Taman Mini
Lapangan Banteng
Government
Jakarta is administratively equal to a province with special status as the capital of Indonesia.
The official name of Jakarta is
Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta
("Special Capital City District of Jakarta"), which in Indonesian is abbreviated to DKI Jakarta.
Jakarta is divided into five kota or
kotamadya
("cities" – formerly municipalities), each headed by a mayor – and one regency
(kabupaten)
headed by a regent (bupati).
Administrative division
The cities/municipalities of Jakarta are:
North Jakarta
Central Jakarta
West Jakarta
East Jakarta
Central Jakarta
and one regency
Kepulauan Seribu
Head Of Government
The head of government is the Governor
elected every five years

Current Governor
Basuki Tjahaja Purnama
Cultural
As Jakarta is culturally diverse,it shares similar cultural traits with many of Indonesia's regions
as seen on the
ethnic group section
National Scale
Jakarta shares most of its cultural roots with most of the
Java
Provinces, as well as certain
Sumatran
provinces.
Global Scale
ASEAN Nations
Example

Most of the people in
Jakarta
speaks in
Javanese
, a language indigenous to
Central
and
East Java.
Most of the food in
Jakarta
has seen influences from many different regions, most notably from the
Chinese Indonesians
as well as most of the
Java
provinces
Political
Human-Environment Interaction
Depending On
Physical
Java Island


Indonesia
shares similar physical characteristics such as mean temperature as well as overall landscape of flatlands and tropical climate
Southeast Asia
Virtually all of Southeast Asia lies between the tropics,
Climate is similar
flora and fauna similar
Temperatures are generally warm, although it is cooler in highland areas
the oceans are shallow
ideal environment for fish, coral, seaweeds, and other products.
the region as a whole, except for the Philippines, is generally free of hurricanes and typhoons.
Language
shares similar
Austronesian
roots
Economical
Views on Patriarchy
Due to a number of factors—low populations, the late arrival of the world religions, a lack of urbanization, descent through both male and female lines—women in
Southeast Asia
are generally seen as more equal to men that in neighboring areas like
China
and
India
.
Social Stratification
Rulers and courts in areas who adopted
Hinduism
or forms of
Buddhism
promoted a culture which combined imported ideas with aspects of local society and as well as basic law and order needed to govern a society.
Art

Due to the fact that these Southeast nations had gone through similar migration patterns, one would see many parallels in terms of art and cuisine.
kebaya encim
busana baba nyonya
(Jakarta)
(Malaysia)
shows similar fabric and colour scheme
cut is similar and the skirt used draws parallel
Sister Cities Of Jakarta
a form of legal and social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states and even countries in
geographically
and
politically
distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties


Central America
Mexico City, Mexico
Europe
Istanbul, Turkey
Berlin, Germany
Paris, France
London, United Kingdom
Amsterdam, Netherlands

Oceania
Canberra, Australia
Sydney, Australia
Perth, Australia
Auckland, New Zealand
Wellington, New Zealand

North America
New York City, United States
Miami, United States
Las Vegas, United States
Washington D.C, United States
Toronto, Canada

Africa
Johannesburg, South Africa
Cape Town, South Africa
Pretoria, South Africa
Mumbai, India
Cairo, Egypt
Middle east
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Asia
Tokyo, Japan
Pyongyang, North Korea
Singapore City, Singapore
Manila, Philippines
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei
Seoul, South Korea
Beijing, China
Shanghai, China
Hong Kong, China
Macau, China
Taipei, Republic of China

Islamabad, Pakistan
Hotel Indonesia Kempinski
oldest hotel in Jakarta
Indonesia biggest electricity company
Modifying
Jakarta Flood Canal
Jakarta is prone to flooding
physical landscape proves vulnerable
Jakarta Flood Canal
is a canal that was made to divert flow of
Ciliwung River
to outside of
Batavia
instead of going through the city.
has partially reduced floods over the past few decade
Asian Network of Major Cities 21
a body representing the interests of several of Asia's largest capital cities around common themes of importance, including urban planning, sustainability and crisis management.
members :
Bangkok, Delhi,Hanoi, Kuala Lumpur,Seoul,Singapore, Taipei
ASEAN Nations
ASEAN
association of south east asian nations
encourages the free flow of investment within ASEAN.
ASEAN has emphasised regional cooperation in the “three pillars”, which are security, sociocultural integration, and economic integration.
Most members of ASEAN apply similar economic policies as part of the association's agenda such as
The ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Area (ACIA)

A Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT)
promote the free flow of goods within ASEAN lead to the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA)
ASEAN SIX MAJORS
ASEAN six majors refer to the six largest economies in the area with economies many times larger than the remaining four ASEAN countries.


Indonesia (Jakarta)
Thailand (Bangkok)
Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur)
Singapore
Philippines (Manila)
Vietnam (Hanoi)
West Java
Shares similiar tropical monsoon climate
Central Java
it's flatlands are similar to that of Jakarta's mountainless region
Provinces of Indonesia
like most provinces in Indonesia, the city is divided into
kotamadyas
(cities)
kabupaten
(regencies)
headed by a regent
headed by a mayor
as it is part of ASEAN's goal to maintain democratic harmony, most of the countries under its membership has a political system similar to one another, mainly consisting of legislative bodies and usually a head of state.
Places such as
Central Jakarta
and
South Jakarta
lies in the flatter areas that are mostly rid of swamp areas, therefore most of the city's settlement lies along this region.

Undeveloped swamp areas along
East Jakarta
is used as industrial sites due to the lack of settlements.
The area of
North Jakarta
is mostly used as an export-import hub due to its relatively close proximity to the ports.
Settlements are not as common here due to flood scares in this region.
adapt
As Jakarta's tropical monsoon climate as well as its flatland landscape, Jakarta's architecture has changed over the years to accommodate to the city's concern on floods.
Movement
People&Goods
Most of the people's movement in Jakarta revolves around the many facilities that city has offered, such as :
Private transportation
motorbikes
most common form of private transportation due to its compact size and efficiency.
cars
cars have become more popular among commuters due to the rather insufficient public transportations
Public transportation
Land
Transjakarta Busway
TransJakarta is a bus rapid transit (BRT) system
"Auto rickshaws", called
Bajaj
,provide local transportation in the back streets of some parts of the city
Bajaj
Although
ojeks
are not an official form of public transport, they can be found throughout Indonesia and in Jakarta. They are especially useful on the crowded urban roads and narrow alleyways, which other vehicles cannot reach.
Ojek
Sea
ferry
Jakarta's main seaport Tanjung Priok serves many ferry connections to different parts of Indonesia.
Jakarta's Soekarno-Hatta airport serves as Indonesia's biggest airport, serving both domestic and international flights 24/7.
Air
Migration
Over the years,
Jakarta
has become an urbanized epicenter, thus flowing with many people migrating to the city.
rural-urban migration is common amongst smaller villages as it is a custom for the son of the family to go to the city and start a new life. It is called
Merantau.
As
Jakarta
has gradually become one of the biggest economy of
Southeast Asia
, many foreigners have migrated to the city, looking for investment opportunities.
Colonial era Migrations
Portuguese
First set foot in Jakarta in 1513 in search for spice, the Portuguese would later on build their own settlement in
Kampung Tugu.
Dutch
Having spent over 300 years invading Jakarta, the
Dutch
have built many settlements in the city, blending with the
Betawi
culture.
Connections
Communication
Social Media

As Jakarta is a significant scene of youth culture, many ideas are spread through ways of
social media
Mass Media
Daily newspapers in Jakarta include

Chinese language national newspaper: Indonesia Shang Bao
English language national newspaper: The Jakarta Post, The Jakarta Globe
Indonesian language national newspaper: Kompas, Koran Tempo, Media Indonesia, Seputar Indonesia, Republika, Suara Pembaruan, Suara Karya, Sinar Harapan, Indo Pos, Jurnal Nasional, Harian Pelita
Business newspaper: Bisnis Indonesia, Investor Daily, Kontan, Harian Neraca.
Indonesian language local (Jakarta) newspaper: Pos Kota, Warta Kota, Koran Jakarta, Berita Kota,
Sport newspaper: Top Skor, Soccer
References
Suryodiningrat, Meidyatama (22 June 2007). "Jakarta: A city we learn to love but never to like". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 21 February 2008.
Jump up ^ "Travel Indonesia Guide – How to appreciate the 'Big Durian' Jakarta". Worldstepper-daworldisntenough.blogspot.com. 8 April 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
Jump up ^ "A Day in J-Town". Jetstar Magazine. April 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
Jump up ^ "Jokowi submits resignation letter". The Jakarta Globe.
Jump up ^ "Jumlah Penduduk Provinsi DKI Jakarta". Dinas Kependudukan dan Catatan Sipil. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
Jump up ^ "Indonesia Population 2014". World Population Review. March 26, 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
^ Jump up to: a b Sensus Penduduk 2010. Biro Pusat Statistik
Jump up ^ "The World According to GaWC 2008". Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Loughborough University. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
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