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Period of Suppressed Nationalism
Transcript of Period of Suppressed Nationalism
rule was a challenge to Filipino
Nationalism and independence
As the Americans settled in to rule the islands, the Filipinos continued their fight against the Americans
President McKinley’s instruction
to the Taft Commission:
“no law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech or the press or of the right of the people to peacefully assemble and petition the government for a redress of grievance” However, the Taft Commission passed laws suppressing basic rights “for the safety of the sovereignty of the United States in the Philippines”
Sedition Law Reconcentration Law Brigandage Law
Flag Law SEDITION LAW
Act No. 292 (4 November 1901)
Imposed death penalty or long prison terms to any Filipino advocating independence, even only by means of writings and speeches.
Sedition was defined as action pro-independence, meant to inculcate the spirit of hatred and enmity against American people, and incite the people to an open armed resistance The Sedition Law effectively suppressed several aspects in society that the Filipinos may use for their expressions of independence and nationalism:
a) The theater and other art expressions
b) Political parties
d) Political movements
The theater was a form of entertainment for many Filipinos during the Spanish times. In the period of suppressed nationalism, it became the means to express the anti-American sentiments of the nationalists.
In 1902, the seditious theater was born.
The authors, actors and spectators of these "seditious plays" were arrested and imprisoned by the Americans.
Some of the plays that were banned:
Hindi Aco Patay written by Juan Matapang Cruz
Tanikalang Guinto by Juan Abad, and
Kahapon, Ngayon at Bukas by Aurelio Tolentino
Pag-Ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa by Pascual Poblete
Walang Sugat by Severino Reyes
Using traditional stage methods, the actors and crew inserted bits of subversive stage business:
costumes would suddenly form the Philippine flag (the display of which was forbidden by law);
the unscheduled singing of the National Anthem (also forbidden by law);
the surprise appearance on stage of an underground hero, like General Artemio Ricarte;
new stage business, like the trampling of the American flag, or,
in the case of Severino Reyes’ Walang Sugat (Unwounded), the replacement of the friar-villain by Uncle Sam.
BRIGANDAGE ACT 12 November 1902
This law prohibited the Filipinos from forming or joining any organization or nationalist movement and relegated all armed resistance against the Americans as pure banditry.
REACTIONS – Generals of the Revolution General Luciano San Miguel of Bulacan and his
troops raided and captured municipal police
detachments as well as other town to
obtain weapons. He was killed in
an open fire against the
American troops in 1903.
REACTIONS – Generals of the Revolution General Macario Sakay and Col. Lucio de Vega was charged against this Act, as well as for rape, robbery, kidnapping and murder.
In accordance with the law, he died by public hanging, while other officers were sentenced to long period of prison terms (Sept 13, 1907)
Before being hanged, he shouted that he was not a brigand, but a patriot of the Philippines.
RECONCENTRATION ACT 1 June 1903 This act allowed provincial governors to reconcentrate all residents of outlying barrios to facilitate the apprehension of rebels being hidden and protected by the people.
BACKGROUND Gen. Franklin Bell believed that the people of Batangas and Laguna are helping the troops of Gen. Miguel Malvar.
He ordered reconcentration to further apprehend the people.
General Malvar surrendered on April 16, 1902 and General Lukban, two months after After Jan 1, 1902, all properties outside of the zone would be confiscated or destroyed. Futhermore, all men seen outside the zone would be imprisoned or killed
Before Dec 25, 1901, Gen Bell directed the people to move into the reconcentrated areas, with all food and properties they can carry.
FLAG LAW Act No. 1696
6 September 1907
Prescribed the Philippine Flag or any nationalist flags, banners or symbols, particularly those identified to the Katipunan be destroyed and banned the use of the Philippine national anthem.
BACKGROUND - 1907 ELECTIONS In 1907, as the elections for the First Philippine Assembly were about to be held, Fernando Ma. Guerrero, a journalist and poet, decided to run as a candidate in Manila for the newly-organized Liga Popular Nacionalista. He won an overwhelming victory
As Teodoro Kalaw narrates:
"During the tumultuous celebration of his [Guerrero's] victory, the Filipino Flag was very openly displayed, and with great emotion. In contrast, the American flag received very little attention. Many American officers considered this an aspersion cast on the American sovereignty of the Islands. As a consequence, the Civil Commission, a few days later, declared illegal the display of the Filipino flag, and, in general, the use of any emblem used in the Revolution."
It was brought about in view of the fact that in processions held in Manila, Caloocan, and Navotas for the purpose of celebrating the triumph of one of the political parties occasion was taken to relegate the American flag to second place or to the rear of the processions and to display an American flag of so small a size as to make it ridiculous when compared with insurrectionary flags, banners, and emblems carried in the post of honor.
Repeal It was only in 1919 when a more lenient American leader, Governor General Francis Burton Harrison, signed it into law after the Philippine Legislature passed it. For over 10 years, in spite of the Filipino control of the legislature, the lawmakers failed to repeal the Flag Law after the bills that they passed was vetoed by the Governor-General. The period of suppressed nationalism was more than a period of oppression for the Filipinos. It was a time of challenge for the independence that they lost in the American colonization. As self-rule was granted to them during the civil government, the Filipinos took up the fight again, this time in the realm of politics.