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Group Presentation: Jamaica

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Sierra Vasquez

on 26 October 2016

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Transcript of Group Presentation: Jamaica

Transcultural Nursing

The Six Phenomenon

Environmental Factors
By : Sierra Vasquez, Sharon Blake, Kayla Hall, & Antoinette Wolf
Social Organization
Transcultural nursing is viewed as a culturally competent practice field that is client centered and research focused.
Social Orientation
Environmental Control
Biological Variations
Giger and Davidhizar, 2008
Jamaica is a very culturally diverse country. Jamaica originated as a spanish colony and later a British colony. Jamaica became an independent nation in 1962. (everyculture.com, 2015)

Religion for Jamaicans is an important part of their life. While most are Christians nearly 100,000 Jamaicans are Rastafarians. Rastafarians read the Kebra Negast. This is their version of the bible. They worship Haile Selassie from Ethiopia.
(everyculture.com, 2015)
Jamaica is a constitutional monarchy. Queen Elizabeth II acts as head of the state. She has an appointed Prime Minister. Currently The Hon Portia Simpson Miller. (the commonwealth, 2015)
Most of Jamaica's economy is from export crops including sugarcane, bananas, citrus fruits, yams, and the famous Blue Mountain coffee. The other large portion of their economy stems from tourism. (everyculture.com, 2015)
Jamaicans use a more holistic approach for their health systems. They believe that illnesses are caused by cultural taboos and or violation of cultural taboos. They treat in a more natural environment, if this does not work they use modern medicine. (everyculture.com, 2015)
The vast majority of the Jamaican race is black. The ancestors originating from Africa. (90.9%) The rest of the race is made up of East Indian (1.3%), White (0.2%), Chinese (0.2%), and mixed ethnicity. (7.3%).
Oxford African American Studies Center, 2010


Beaches, Bob Marley, and the feeling of relaxation; these are some ideas that come to mind when thinking about Jamaica.......but Jamaica is so much more. Jamaica is known for its widespread thought of "one love".
Ethnicity is often used interchangeably with the term race. "Ethnicity in its broadest sense refers to groups whose members share a common social and cultural heritage passed on to each successive generation.
Giger and Davidhizar, 2008
"The major ethnic division is that between whites and blacks. The achievement of black majority rule has led to an emphasis on class relations, shades of skin color, and cultural prejudices, rather than on racial divisions. Jamaica has never experienced entrenched ethnic conflict between blacks and Indians or Chinese."
everyculture.com, 2015
"a social unit of society that interacts with a larger society" ( Giger and Davidhizar, 2008 )
Jamaica has many different family systems including nuclear, matri-focal, and blended-family. Traditionally the man of the house provides for the family while the wife stays home and cares for the children. However, as time has evolved there has been more families in the matri-focal ways, where the mother is the head of the household. (everyculture.com, 2015; Fyffe, 2013)
Child rearing: The mother is the central unit. Some studies show in the more recent years Jamaican men in stable relationships transition better into fatherhood and are more accepting of changes that take place in their lives then men in unstable relationships. They are more willing and more involved. This in return helps keep a more nuclear family. (Davis, 2015) (everyculture.com, 2015)
Family relations are of great importance to the Jamaican culture. Family is not just blood relatives and kinship includes but not limited to grandparents, aunts and uncles, nieces and nephews, and often when someone is less fortunate they are shifted from family to family for support. (everyculture.com, 2015)
Most Jamaicans work on farms, farming produce, sugar cane, and coffee. Jamaica is especially know for it's Blue Mountain Coffee.
Jamaica's Motto: "
Out of many, one people

In the past the black slaves brought to Jamaica from Africa preformed manual labor in the plantations and the whites owned the production. In more recent times, blacks are working in all aspects of the working society and in fact have jobs in very professional positions.
Women commonly work in domestic, secretarial, and teaching jobs.
Cicely Williams, discovered Kwashiorkor, a protein deficiency disease
Colin Powell, 65th United States Secretary of State (originally from Jamaica)
Cindy Breakspeare, Miss Jamaica, Miss Universe,
In Jamaica, there are more significant gender roles when it comes to the work field. Men commonly work in high power positions with more education than women.
everyculture.com, 2015
Leisure & Friends

Biological Variation

Lots of fresh fruits and vegetables
are eaten. Fruits such as mangoes, pineapple, papaya, bananas, guava, coconuts, ackee, and plantains
are used as snacks or in deserts
Disease Susceptibility
& Health Issues
Physical Characteristics
The majority of Jamaican people have brown eyes but this varies depending on heritage. Many people have hazel, blue or grey eyes as well.
Skin Color
& Build
The Jamaican people have a heritage of
many background such as Jewish, British,
African, China and India so skin color varies
widely. Many have brown skin but some are
more chocolate colored and some are tawny
to white colored.
Psychological Characteristics
Jamaican men are often considered overly confident because their personalities are stronger than that of men in other countries
Hair is predominately brown, dense and rough with a tiny, spring-like, helix shape
People of the Rastafarian religion let their hair be "natural" and wear it in locks or dreadlocks
Rasta men wear beards as part of their religion
High cheek-bone are predominant in facial structure.
Noses are often wide and flat
Jamaicans are very
family oriented
Religion is very important.
Jamaicans run on"Island time" and are invariably late
Jamaican lifestyle is mostly laid back/relaxed and about living life to the fullest.
Women are often thought of as feisty and loud
Diets are high in fat and carbs with
most carbs coming from rice, yucca,
potatoes, breadfruit, and peas
Protein comes mostly from fish/seafood and mutton(goat). Beef pork and poultry are available to most people and legumes provide protein as well. Meat portions are usually small.
Most men have a mesomorph or ectomorph frame, but women tend to be heavier and
have a mesomorph

Jamaicans have a longer life expectancy than people of african descent in the U.S.
Shift in communicable to non communicable diseases recently due to lifestyle changes and rise in cost of fresh unprocessed foods
Health Choices
Jamaicans first choice at the sign of illness is self cure using natural remedies before going to the doctor.
Examples of first choices:
Second choice
The Jamaican Body
Is viewed as an open system that needs to be kept clean and well regulated for health maintenance. Thinness and fatness goes hand in hand. For example a woman may have "good fat" meaning she is fat and firm. on the other hand, being too this is termed "mauger" meaning she is made up of pure skin and bone or powerless.
"Wash out" is important in jamaican culture this is considered purging the system of food that may be considered blocking the intestine "Tripe". this was a tradition practice by jamaican west african slaves. Epsom salt, cathartic herb or castor oil is used.
Keeping the blood clean
It is important to prevent illness so monthly cleansing is done by drinking a bitter bush called cerasee (mimordica charontia) or tea of ground bissy (cola acuminate). Cerasee is also used at the first sign of belly pain.
Dirty Blood
Dirty blood may be caused by eating bad/sour, fertilized food are just not following preventative measures such as monthly cleansing.
"Sugar" means one exhibits diabetic like symptoms. This is believed to occur when a person eats too much sugar. Sores do not heal or take long to heal. It is believed that ingesting bitter or acidic tea from rice bitters(andrographis paniculata) or ginger will "cut" or freshen blood back to its natural pre- sugar state.
Pressure/ Hypertension
Too little liquid food is linked to low blood pressure. Drinking a punch made with molasses and red "tonic" wine is consumed. Low blood pressure is preferred over high. Overweight jamaicans are considered to consume too much salt. High blood pressure is treated with garlic tea and breadfruit leaf is tied around the head to lower the pressure.
It is believed that temperature affects the flow of substance through the body it can be bad carrying too much or too little weight lack of activity make things cold. Activity is associated with vigor. It is good for a body to work whether thin or fat. It is believed blood that is too warm and thin might run out of a cut too fast and bring death or sickness.
Fever is caused when the body becomes too hot and has toxins and must be cleansed which means "cool" down. Cooling drink preparation is used. If this does not work than "steaming" is done by covering with a sheet and sit on a plank filled with steaming water containing herb like fever grass (cymbopogon citratus).
It is believed one can catch a cold from sitting directly on a cold surface or from performing a hot task such a cooking than taking an immediate shower.
Sobo, E. J. (1933).
One Blood : The Jamaican Body.
Albany, N. Y. State University of New York Press.
High rate of vitamin D deficiency in children.
Jamaicans are generally active individuals. They are not found in front of the T.V very often. There are only two television stations on the whole island.
They enjoy being outside listening to music, mostly reggae. They also enjoy playing sports like cricket and 'football' (soccer).
There is an increasing number of overweight and obese people. Women have a higher occurrence than men for obesity.
The Jamaican culture is known for friends being family. Everyone has a close relationship and welcomes their friends with open arms.
Bob Marley playing 'football'
More susceptible to hypertension and diabetes. and have a higher rate of prostate cancer
everyculture.com, 2015
Religion is an important part of life for Jamaicans. More than 80 percent are Christian. Most practice Anglicanism, Protestantism, and Roman Catholicism. The Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, and Bahai religions are also practiced, as is Rastafarianism.

Everyculture.com, 2015
Jamaicans practice similar rites of passage as Americans do.
The lion of Judah symbolizes Jesus Christ in Rastafarian religion.
Dreadlocks are a religious symbol of strength and faith.
Jamaican Research: Caribbean Family Diversity - Part 3. (2013, February 19). Retrieved February 22, 2015, from https://theislandjournal.wordpress.com/2013/02/19/jamaican-lifestyle-caribbean-family-diversity-part-3/
Africans in Jamaica: A piece of Africa in the Caribbean. (2015). New African, 49(546), 62-64.
Davis, S. A. (2015). The role of the father in pregnancy in Jamaica. International Journal of Childbirth Education, 30(1), 30+. Retrieved from http://db12.linccweb.org/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com.db12.linccweb.org/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA398628834&v=2.1&u=lincclin_ircc&it=r&p=EAIM&sw=w&asid=23199def5650811766154647379710b4
Jamaica. (2010, January 1). Retrieved February 22, 2015, from http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/samples/sample_country.jsp
Countries and Their Cultures. (2015, January 1). Retrieved February 22, 2015, from http://www.everyculture.com/Ja-Ma/Jamaica.html
Country Cooperation Strategy at a glance. (2013, May 1). Retrieved February 22, 2015, from http://www.who.int/countryfocus/cooperation_strategy/ccsbrief_jam_en.pdf
Jamaica : Constitution and politics. (2015, January 1). Retrieved February 22, 2015, from http://thecommonwealth.org/our-member-countries/jamaica/constitution-politics
Giger, J. (2008). <i>Transcultural nursing: Assessment and intervention</i> (5th ed.). St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby Elsevier.
Personal Space

Personal space is much less in Jamaica than in the United States. Jamaican's are very friendly; they will want to shake hands , and hug people when they first meet them, and out of respect look into a person's eyes when speaking to them.

Most people have heard the term "Island time"
Jamaican's tend to run late for scheduled appointments.
In the last 5 years there has been a spike in malaria.
According to Giger and Davidhizar (2008) , “Communication and culture are closely

intertwined. Communication is the means by which culture is transmitted and preserved. Culture

influences how feelings are expressed and what verbal and nonverbal expressions are


There are different forms of communication, verbal and non-verbal. We will look at

communication in the Jamaican culture .
“Jamaica Language is a reflection of the diversity of the people of Jamaica. The wonderful
blend of various races and cultures has affected the languages spoken in Jamaica.
English is the official language of Jamaica.
The most unique of the languages of Jamaica is a dialect formed by the amalgamation of words

from many languages with English. It is known as Jamaican Creole or Patois. It is the most

widely spoken language of Jamaica. Patois is popular because of the musical lilt and rhythm in

the words of the language. It is also used in the lyrics of Reggae, the famous music of Jamaica.

The immigrants from outside Jamaica have brought with them their language as well and

languages like Spanish, Irish, Scottish are also spoken. The other two significant languages of

Jamaica are Taino (mixed with Spanish) and Arawak, specific to particular regions.

The Jamaican Creole having elements of English is however not easy to understand for outsiders

because of the way it is spoken by the Jamaicans.” (visit jamaica)
“Fret not if you see two Jamaicans in dialogue – loud and animated with hands flying all around.
Chances are, it is not a disagreement, though so it would seem to be. Jamaican ‘patois’ is
expressed as much through gesture and drama as tone and rhythm. It is the way a very passionate
people share ideas and feelings. So much more than a means of communication, the language
Patois emerged from the languages of those who came to the island. Centuries later what we
have is a colourful lingo spoken by a people with a gift for vivid imagery, ridicule and irony,
down-to-earth humour and bawdy cuss-words. A creative intermingling of words which
primarily have their roots in the English, French and the African tongues.
Patois is a wonderful way of communicating the feeling of All Right.” (maps of world)
“Through body language or motions (kinetic behavior), the person conveys what cannot or may
not be said in word” (Giger and Davidhizer, 2008).
I interviewed a friend from Jamaica and I asked her to give me an example of non-verbal
communication. A.Newman (personal communication, February 11,2015) explained, “ when I
disapprove of something I role my eyes and suck my teeth. I would not do this in front of an
elderly person….Respect.”

Genuine Jamaican Dutchpot
Full transcript