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Elements and Principles of Graphic Design

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Michael Niemi

on 19 September 2017

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Transcript of Elements and Principles of Graphic Design


To conclude...
Elements and Principles
-For each Element and Principle of design:
1. Search online for an example of a piece of design work you like and think best illustrates the E and P. (Google Image Search "Line in Graphic Design" or "Repetition in Graphic Design" etc. and see what comes up!
2. Save this image by right clicking on it and choosing "Save Image As". Save to desktop.
3. Go to www.prezi.com. We will go through how to create a Prezi as this is where you will add your slides and other info.
4. Once we have begun our Prezi template, you will begin the next steps to developing your presentation.
5. All sources (web addresses) must be cited for each image. In your presentation, you can type them in DIRECTLY BELOW each image or on their own slide at the end.
6. Accompanying each image, you must write 2 sentences: 1 describing what you like about the slide and, 1 describing how you see the E or P being used.

it is important to remember that you will not be
utilizing every single element and principle in every
design you create, but each design you create will
incorporate multiple elements and principles. How
well you incorporate them, is going to be determined
by how well you are aware they are there.
Much like in fine art, the world of Graphic Design, Graphic Art, or Digital Media has its' own set of concepts that help artists arrange the objects within a given composition. We would refer to these as the "building blocks of Design". These concepts can be broken down into two categories:
Elements and Principles
The transition from a page to a finished design usually begins the same way with everyone....with a simple line. This is the first basic element of design. Styles of line may be straight, curved, wavy, zig zag, staggered, dotted, dashed, etc. Lines may be "ACTUAL" or "IMPLIED". It needs to be used as a tool Graphic Designers use to be a representation of real objects in 2 and 3 Dimensional space, without it always being an exact copy of reality.
Shape, in terms of graphic design, cannot just mean simply circles, triangles, squares, etc. That is a very elementary way of considering these elements in your work. In order to utilize these 2 dimensional elements in your designs, you need to be able to understand what these shapes do to the eye of your audience. Here are some examples of shape used in Graphic Designs.
We can't think of the term "SHAPES" as in just circles,
squares, and triangles when it comes to Graphic Design.
How you use shapes in your design will determine alot about the overall outcome of the design. Shapes can be simple, complex, geometric, organic, actual, and implied. Check out these examples of shapes used in design.
The concept of "Mass" in graphic design can be fairly easy to display if you understand
what it means. Mass simply refers to an objects size in design. We often think of mass
being somewhat relative in our designs. If you are incorporating an image of a man in your
design and you want him to feel insignificant and weak, you might shrink him down
and place him on the bottom half of your work in order to make him appear smaller in mass
than the rest of your design. Here are some examples of "MASS" in design.
texture plays a huge role in how a viewer "feels" your design. Texture
can either be real or implied. Real texture can be applied to a business
card in the form of an indention or elevated graphic. Implied texture
leaves the impression of a tactile substance. Think....thin crust versus
thick crust pizza!
Color is determined by light. The amount of light that
reflected off of an object and is picked up by the human eye, determines its color. Color is referred to in 3 different categories: Lightness, Saturation, and hue. Color is extremely important in design because it has the ability to evoke a tremendous amount of emotion from your viewer, and the wrong color can send the wrong message about your product. See how the color in these designs make you feel about the product:
Type, simply put, is anything put into your design that resembles written communication.
In Design, type plays a pivotal role in the message of your work. The Font, Font size,
Color, direction, variation of type, etc. all play into how effective your work will be. Good
graphic designers know how to take each of these characteristics into account when
creating their designs.
- Balance
- Proximity/ Unity
- Alignment
- Repetition/ Consistency
- Contrast
- White Space
Visual balance in a work of graphic design
comes from the the arrangement of items
on the page so that not one side is
weighted heavier than another. a Visual
imbalance can be created by intentionally
placing more weight on one side of the page
than the other. this can be done to have
the viewer experience some sort of tension.
See these examples of balance in design:
The relative closeness or separation between two objects reflects some sort
of assumed relationship between those two objects. This is apparent in design
in the proximity to text and images, as well as other objects within a given
design. The idea of unity can be achieved by using some 3rd element to create
some sort of visual connection between other parts.
how you align text and images together on a page
can make your layout easier or more difficult to read.
Images with scattered elements, depending on how they
are aligned, may bring a sense of excitement or newness
to a design. Alignment can bring order to chaos.
Staying consistent with text, picture elements, and design styles
within a given document allows the viewer to flow easily through
your designs. If you use a different text characteristics in every
area of your design, it may be hard to navigate through. See these
examples on Repetition/ Consistency:
Black/white, Large/Small, Thin/Wide....these
are just a few examples of contrast. This can
be seen in shapes, people, text....anything
where distinct differences can be noticed by
the viewer. Using these contrasting elements
appropriately in your designs can greatly affect
the perception from the viewer.
One of the hardest of all principles to grasp and utilize well is the
incorporation of "white space" in the design. In terms of art, we
could call this the negative space. How a designer utilizes the
space around their images and text will greatly determine the
design's effectiveness. Good rule of thumb,

"Just because there is white space, doesn't mean you have to cram
a bunch of crap in there!"
For your assignment, we have used this presentation as a refresher, since you have already covered this in year 1. I would like you to use this opportunity to research more about both the History and the Future of Graphic Design.

You and a partner will need to research 2 categories:
The History of Graphic Design and...
Careers for Graphic Designers

You may split this responsibility any way you choose, but both partners need to provide equal work to the presentation.
1. History of Graphic Design
You will need to provide a broad overview of how Graphic Design/ Computer Graphics began, and where it is today. Your research requirements are as follows:
- Powerpoint or Prezi
- 8 Slides minimum
- Minimum of 6 dates of significant events (Time Periods). These should be spread throughout history and cover up to current day.
- Reference at least 6 important figures in Graphic Design
- At least 8 visual references with importance to your research.

2. "Future" - Careers for Graphic Designers
You will need to research opportunities for careers in Graphic Design. This field encompasses many different working environments and opportunities, in a variety of medias. The research requirements are as follows:
- Same presentation material as partner
- 8 slides minimum
- Minimum of 6 career opportunities with descriptions of their jobs, potential starting and ending salary for position.
- For each career, you will need to provide research for what a potential workday would look like.
- At least 1 visual reference for each career option of what their work may look like.
- Provide at least 3 options for college programs of study, and colleges that offer those programs.
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