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Cardiac Embryology

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by

Michelle Wilson Ed.D., RDMS, RDCS

on 30 September 2015

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Transcript of Cardiac Embryology

Cardiac Embryology
for Sonographers

By: Michelle Wilson Ed.D,
RDMS, RDCS

Why must I learn this?
Lets Start from the Beginning
Cardiovascular System
Cardiovascular System
Aortico-Pulmonary Septa, Bulbar Ridges
Functionally important to development
Most organs simply grow and differentiate
Brain, Lungs, Liver, Digestive System, Gonads, Kidneys
4 Weeks Gestation
Circulation must begin to keep cells from dying
Revamped at least 4 times
Form a single tube
Split into two pumps
Circulation changes at birth
Three Venous Systems
Primitive Four
Chamber Heart
Septae-Septations
Formation of Interatrial Septum
Vitelline System
Umbilical System
Cardinal System
Beginning with
the Tube
Primitive Atrium-Left Ventricle
Ventriclar Septation
Dilation of two primitive ventricles
Cells come together from each chamber
Form muscular portion of IVS
Grow superiorly
Develops from three embryonic components
Endocardial cushions
Conus cushions
Muscular septum
Grows Rapidly
Causing Folding

http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/child/prenatal/images/prenatal_diagnostic_testing.gif
Heart and Arterial trunk septations split by
6 walls
Septum Primum
Septum Secundum
AV Septum
Interventricular Septum
Membranous Part
Aortico-pulmonary seta
Bulbar ridges
Heart Tube

Formation of the Primitive Four Chamber Heart
Septation of the Heart
Atrial Septation
Ventrical Septation
Septation of the Bulbus Cordis
Cardiac Valve Formation
Outflow Tract Development
Bends creates the atrium
Atrioventricular canal forms
Connects atrium to early vents
Most of the looping occurs at the bulbus cordis
Arterial trunk now above the ventricle
Endocardial Cushions
Develop from:
Dorsal and ventral walls
Grow towards each other
Divide the common AV canal
Left
Right
Split the atrial and ventricular chambers
Give rise to mitral and tricuspid valves
Division of the Atrioventricular Valves
Atrioventricular Canal (AV)
Endocardial Cushions Swell Around Orifice
Function as Primitive Valves
Septum Primum
Middle of the common atrium
Grows towards forming endocardial cushions
Ostium primum
First communication hole
Eventually obliterated by endocardial growing up into atrioventricular canal
Ostium secundum forms
Septum Secundum
Second atrial septum
Formed from the right horn of the sinus venosus being incorporated
Grows parallel to the 1st septum
Also contains a hole, and once minimally covered becomes:
Foramen Ovale
Arterial Outflow called the
truncus arteriosis
Septation of the Bulbus Cordis
Truncal swellings-ridges
Enlarge and fuse
Aorticopulmonary septum
Septum spiral develops distally
Conal Ridge Forms:
Dividing proximal aorta and pulmonary artery
Also contributes to membranous IV septum
As the conal and truncal septa fuse and spiral, the aorta and pulmonary artery are formed.
As they spiral down the great vessels arrive at their respective ventricles
Cardiac Valve Formation
Atrioventricular Valves
Subendocardial
Endocardial tissue
Project into the AV canal
Bulges are invaded by muscle
Eventually all muscle disappears
Except papillary muscles
Cusps remain as fibrous structures
Tricuspid on right
Bicuspid or Mitral on the left
Semilunar Valves
Localized swellings of endocardial tissues
Occurs within the respective arteries
Membranous Septum
Offset towards the mitral valve
Two portions
Interventricular (MSV)
Between the LV and RA (MSA)
Wedging of the AV between the MV and TV
Has 5 Zones
Arterial Truck
Bulbus Cordis
Primitive Ventricle
Atrium
Sinus Venosus
Summary
Heart Tube Formed
Formation of the Primitive Heart
Four Chambers
Septation of the Heart
Atrial
Ventricular
Septation of the conus/truncal cushions
Cardiac Valve Formation
Outflow Tract Development
Full transcript