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Byzantine Arts & Architecture
Transcript of Byzantine Arts & Architecture
4th, 5th, and 6th Century
Started and spread from Constantinople
Since Constantine converted to Christianity and spread the Christian religion, many churches were built
Many influences from Roman and Greek architecture
Rome: Concrete and brickwork, arches, domes, basilicas
Greek: Cross (arms of equal length), columns
Byzantine architecture was one of the 3 major forces in the architectural world in the Middle Ages of Europe
It influenced Islamic and Russian architecture like the Taj Mahal and Dome of the Rock
Styles of Churches
Basilica: They had roofs supported on two rows of columns. An altar was placed in the apse, a semi-circular recess in the far end wall. This model was favored in the West.
Altar: Only the clergy was admitted
Constantine was known for his long and narrow basilicas
The styles of churches became more centralized with equal dimensions over time rather than long rectangular buildings
Centralized or Circular Plan: Center of the structure had a dome on top. Altar was placed in the center. The congregation was not seated and people were free to stand anywhere. This model was favored in the Eastern Byzantine Empire.
The 'Hagia Sophia'
Built over a period of 5 years (532 AD - 537 AD)
Constructed during the reign of Justinian
Accumulation of "several centuries of experimentation toward the realization of a unified space of monumental dimensions"
Church then mosque (1453) then museum for the Turkish Republic (1934)
Unfortunately, some mosaics were removed and sent to Venice during the 4th Crusade (1204) and many mosaics were white washed while the Hagia Sophia was a mosque, until restorations in 1931.
Also incorporated Domes,
Really beautiful decorations
Mainly used on churches
Used on domes
The most important mosaics went in the middle of the dome and less important mosaics went on the edges
Christian Imagery with shining halos and shimmering skin
Made with gold leaf and special glass tiles
Seen in Eastern part of Greece and Turkey
Byzantine Mosaic on the floor of St .George Church
oldest cartographic depiction of Jerusalem
Used the encaustic style: type of paint in which the binder for the paint is wax. Really durable
Decorated the walls and floors of churches
Domed buildings had square and polygonal bases instead of circle bases like the Roman Pantheon
High windows for lighting
Central dome space sustained by smaller domes
Pendentives: Domes cut with another dome on top
Used Christian elements like the cross
Exterior surfaces were covered in marble
Interior surfaces were covered with mosaics
Concrete and brickwork
Other Forms of Art
Enamel, metalwork, and ivory
Mostly religious objects
Byzantine Silk was considered a luxury
Question 4: What are two forms of churches?
Question 5: How was Byzantine's Architecture different from Rome's?
Question 8: What was the style of architecture that was a dome cut by a smaller dome on top?
Question 9: Where did Byzantine Architecture start?
Question 10: The Hagia Sophia was created during the reign of _______
A: Mosaic and Hagia Sophia
B: Basilicas and Central Plan
C: Basilicas and Hagia Sophia
D: Mosaic and Central Plan
Differences between Byzantine Art and Western Roman Art
Rome vs. Byzantine
Western Roman Mosaic was mostly depictions of animal sacrifices
Western Roman art was installed in all types of locations
Western Roman art was generally less skilled
Western Roman Painting
What were mosaics made of?
Special glass tiles and gold leaf
clay tiles and sticks
painted tiles and glue
glass and resin
What did the Byzantine paint?
Byzantine art was mainly about their:
Whose art was generally more advanced
Byzantine silk was:
considered a luxury
Sculpture from the Byzantine Museum in Athens