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Native American Education
Transcript of Native American Education
Rock Point Community School
Vision statement: Rock Point Community School is a school of excellence that provides opportunities for all students and staff. In addition, all student will attain spiritual, social, physical and emotional strength through harmony between Navajo cultural values and traditions and those of the mainstream society.
Located on Navajo reservation in Arizona
Contracted under the BIA (under the Self-Determination Act)
Provides bilingual and bicultural education to 450 students k-12
Mix of modern and traditional
Much more effective than assimilation process used in past
Not fighting cultural differences but using them to add to educational experience
Community is also very involved in the school because it values their culture
Efforts to "De-Indianize" the Indian begin to make their ways back into schools
American Indian students continue to attend off-reservation schools facing assimilation
Reform groups begin to surface in hopes of returning educational independence for American Indian students
Fight against assimilation is met head on
John Collier, once the Executive Secretary for the American Indian Defense Association, is elected as the Commissioner of Indian Affairs by Franklin Roosevelt in 1933
Collier served for 12 years upholding the Meriam report which reformed the Native American educational experience in the classroom
Pushes for more students in reservation based schools
Crafted the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934-Ends assimilation
Collier continues educational crusade against assimilation
Beliefs based off of Meriam Report of 1926
Eliminate "Uniform Course of Study"-Favored white culture
Made way for Indian parents to provide tools to adapt to both the Indian AND White world
More American Indian students continue to attend schools on reservations
- 1972 - Indian Education Act was put together which created The Office of Indian Education.
- The difficulty of learning for Native American students.
- To fix the issue of teaching in English vs Native American language the government “freed” the reservations, dividing up the land and distributing it among the tribal members.
- 1975 - Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act.
- Required the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) to contract many of its services to the tribes.
- Rock Point Community School
-1980 - Community Colleges are placed on every Indian reservation.
- 1965 - The National Advisory Council on Indian Education (NACIE) was formed. Established to advise the Secretary of Education and the Congress on funding and administration of programs with respect to which the Secretary has jurisdiction and that includes Indian children or adults as participants or that may benefit Indian children or adults.
- 1969 - The Kennedy Report was published. Titled "Indian Education: A National Tragedy, A National Challenge"
- Boarding school curriculum changes
- Indian Studies Programs in colleges
Located in every state, over 550 federally recognized sovereign Indian tribes
Tribes exercising sovereignty over education, including public schools that serve tribal children
More than fifteen agreements and collaborative efforts made or amended between law and tribe
Began to create their own universities and colleges to educate their members and nations
College rate doubled , although academic rates still significantly lower than European Americans and had the second lowest dropout rate
NEA joined with the NIEA to host: Moving from Research to Practice
The Native American Career and Technical Education Program awarded 30 grants to federally recognized tribes and organizations
An Education Policy summit took place with state legislators, tribal leaders and education policymakers
Over 100 scholarships and grants, offered for tribal affiliation, ethnic minority pursuit of education…
Indian Education is reauthorized as Title VII Part A of the No Child Left Behind Act.
GRPS begins Native American Education Program
- Offering tutoring, based on needs, evening programming for all Native Students and community events sponsored by the district.
- Aishinaabek Cultural Awareness Program Activities: Native culture, heritage and language
President Obama signed an executive order to Improve American Indian and Alaska Native Educational Opportunities and Strengthening Tribal Colleges and Universities
Native American schooling going?
- 1990 - Native American Languages Act signed by George Bush on October 30th.
- Three important aspects of this act.
1.) Continuation of the policy that Native Americans should be able to self-determine their education.
2.) Reversal of the historic policy that the US government should suppress the Native American culture.
3.) Reaction to the attempt to make English the official language.
- 1995 - The Office of Indian Education (OIE) was almost voted out of existence, with a budget of $1. Tribal leaders and pan-Indian organization leaders traveled to Washington, lobbied Congress, held prayer DC, and called press conferences to ensure continued funding. In September 1995, President Clinton rescued the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and OIE funding when he vetoed the budget.
The United States is hoisted into World War II in 1941
Government funding priorities change
Funding for Indian reservations begins to lose traction
Schools lose funding, buildings and infrastructure begin deteriorating
Reservation schools begin to close
Reports released in 1944 pertaining to the state of education suggest that American Indian students should again attend Off-Reservation schools
Assimilation essentially reinstated due to lack of funds
NATIVE AMERICAN ACTIVITY
Ashley-Intro to Native American Education (5 mins)
Jackie-School Spotlight: Pratt school- Carlisle Indian Industrial School
Activity-Individual vs Group (What are we doing for this?)
(split between people)Timeline
Jennifer: Present Day (2000s), Grants/Funding-GRPS
Jackie-School Spotlight: Rock Point Community School
Native American Education
(Past 50 Years and some)
Between the years 1879 and 1918
•Over 12,000 Native American children attended
•Came from over 140 tribes
•Founded by army officer Richard Henry Pratt
•Strong distrust of BIA
•Army experience: Pratt was in charge of 72 Indian warrior prisoners, he used strong discipline but also taught them to read
•This is where he got the idea to assimilate Native American children
•Military style- uniforms, strong discipline, student ranking
•Children were not allowed to speak their native language
•Had to abandon their culture
•Was not effective
•After a few years of schooling, children went back to tribes and were caught between cultures
•Hadn’t learned their own beliefs, but weren’t strong or passionate enough to change their tribe’s culture
•The school does not remain, but there is a cemetery for the remains of students who died at the school and could not be returned to their families
1. Wait till you are grouped.
2. Name as many State Capitols as you can in 2 minutes on a sheet of paper.
Throughout the 1950's, Native Americans went back and forth with the federal government regarding school leniancy and assimilation issues.
Native Americans also dealt with The Indian Termination Policy- Which did away with special relationships between government and tribes and aimed to mainstream indians into US Society
Carlisle Indian Industrial Boarding School
Bosworth, D. A. (2011). American Indian Boarding Schools. In Ziibiwing Center for Learning. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from http://www.sagchip.org/ziibiwing/planyourvisit/pdf/AIBSCurrGuide.pdf