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Transcript of MYTHOLOGY
Fought in the Trojan War (on the Trojan side)
Held to be the real founder of Rome
After the war, he and his mother were able to escape to Crete.
He was told in a dream that he and the Trojans were destined to settle in Hesperia (Western Italy) The Adventure Begins Cadmus and His Children He started in Crete... They came upon the Harpies
The Trojans wanted to kill the Harpies, when Iris intervened.
The Harpies drove away the Trojans and forced them out to sea The Harpies Next Stop... They sailed south westward around Sicily
However, Helenus was not aware that the south part of Sicily was now occupied by the Cyclopes
One of Ulysses' abandoned sailors told them to flee as quickly as possible.
Polyphemus came out his cave, eye still flowing with blood, to chase Aeneas and his men off the island. Moving on... The Storm While rounding Sicily, they were struck by a massive storm.
Juno was behind the storm
She hated the Trojans
She asked Aeolus, the king of the winds, to sink the Trojans' ships, in return for her loveliest nymph
Juno's brother, Neptune, calmed the sea and made it possible for the Trojans to land on the north coast of Africa Carthage Juno's plan was to have Aeneas fall in love with Dido, Carthage's ruler
She wanted to divert Aeneas from settling in Italy, and wanted him to stay with Dido
Venus was determined to stop Juno's plan
She wanted Dido to fall in love with Aeneas, so that he would be protected in Carthage
However, Venus didn't want Aeneas to fall in love with Dido
She asked her son Cupid to make Dido fall in love with Aeneas Venus disguised herself as a huntress and told the Trojans that they should go straight to Carthage, as the queen would help them.
Dido welcomed Aeneas and the Trojans into her palace.
Dido fell in love with Aeneas, without Cupid's help
She made the citizens respect him as if he were a ruler too.
Aeneas became less and less inclined to leave Carthage for unknown land.
Jupiter told Mercury to urge Aeneas to go on his way to Italy.
Aeneas decided to try to leave secretly to not upset Dido
Dido found out and begged for him to stay, but Aeneas told her that they weren't married, and he could leave whenever he wanted.
As they left, they unknowingly looked a funeral pyre, which was Dido's as she killed herself after Aeneas' departure. Carthage Part II By Virgil Part II: Descent Into the Lower World Aeneas was told by Helenus to seek out Sybil, who would guide him to the underworld, as soon as he landed in Italy.
In the underworld, Aeneas would learn all he needed to know about his father Anchises, who had died before the great storm.
First, he had to find a golden bough growing on a tree, which he must take with him as he is admitted to Hades.
They caught sight of two doves, the birds of Venus, which directed them to the bough.
As they went into the underworld, Sybil sought to terrorize and frighten Aeneas and his men, so that only the boldest men would go.
Charon, the ferryman at the River Styx, was inclined to not allow them to pass, but saw the bough and led them across.
After they got off, in order to get past the three headed dog Cerebus, they gave him a piece of cake.
They met a fork in the road, and to the right led them to Elysian Fields, where Aeneas would find his father.
Aeneas and Anchises met up and were very happy to see each other.
Anchises gave his son instructions on how to best set up his settlement in Italy.
Aeneas left, but calmly, knowing that he would see his father again someday.
Aeneas and the Trojans then sailed up the coast of Italy looking for their promised home. Part III: The War in Italy Juno Strikes Again She made the Latins and Rutulians oppose the settling of the Trojans.
Latinus, great grandson of Saturn, believed that Aeneas was the man who would marry his only daughter Lavinia.
Juno summoned Alecto, one of the Furies, and had her cause a bitter war all over the land.
First she angered Queen Amata, and made her violently oppose the marriage of Aeneas and Lavinia
Then she went to Turnus, one of Lavinia's suitors, and told him of Aeneas's plan to marry Lavinia.
Turnus immediately went to Latinum with his army to stop the treaty between the Latins and the strangers. The Evolving War Under the guidance of Alecto, Aeneas' son Ascanius wounded a beautiful stag whom the countryside protected.
Alecto spread the news, and the farmers wanted to kill him.
The Trojans defended Ascanius and the fighting started at once.
Turnus arrived and shut himself up in the palace until Juno smote open the doors.
Now, the Latins and the Rutulians together opposed the Trojans. Tensions Flare Turnus, Mezentius, and Camilla became allies against the Trojans.
Father Tiber, the river god, visited Aeneas in a dream.
He told them to go swiftly upstream to Evander, a king of a poor town which was destined to become the proudest of earth's cities, where the towers of Rome would soar up.
This is where Aeneas would get the help he needed.
He and some men floated down to Tiber, where they reached Evander's home and recieved a warm welcome by the king and his young son Pallas.
Together they planned where the Roman Forum would be.
On the other side of the river, the Etruscans lived under their fugitive king Mezentius, who was helping Turnus.
Since the Etruscans wanted to spite their former king, they sided with Aeneas and he found them to be willing allies. War While Aeneas was away, Turnus attacked the Trojan camp, who were on the defensive.
They were greatly outnumbered, and the prospect was dark, unless the Trojans could get word to Aeneas about what was happening.
With the Rutulians completely surrounding the fort, two Trojans, Nisus and Euryalus, tried to pass by the enemy to reach Aeneas in the middle of night
Nisus created a path, killing all the men silently.
Euraylus soon joined in as well, but a troop of Latin horsemen caught sight of him and challenged him. He became separated from Nisus.
They both died.
Aeneas came back with a large army of Etruscans in time to save the camp.
Tons of battles, they are all the same, lots of death.
Finally, Turnus and Aeneas meet in single combat, Outcome Turnus and Aeneas meet in single combat.
Turnus is killed.
Aeneas marries Levinia and founds the Roman race. Connections Jason and the Argonauts went on the same quest as Aeneas at the beginning, on their quest for the golden fleece.
Ulysses (Odysseus) also traveled the same path as Aeneas and Jason. This is because Virgil borrowed a lot from Homer's Iliad and the Odyssey.
Virgil also inspired a lot of writers such as Dante in Italian, Milton in English, and the anonymous French poet who took the Aeneid and turned it into a medival romance, Le Roman d'Eneas A curse hung over the House of Atreus, making men sin in spite of themselves and bringing suffering and death down upon the innocent as well as the guilty The Curse 1st step Finished 2nd step Spark Last step Start (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr 1st step Finished 2nd step Spark Last step The Curse (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr cured Niobe Tantalus and Niobe The Curses Tantalus And Niobe Most honored son of Zeus
Wanted to prove how easy it was to deceive the adored divinities by tricking the gods into cannablism
Killed his son Pelop to serve to the gods for dinner
gods recognized the human flesh and were furious
Punished Tantalus by sending him to a pool in Hades were the fruit would always be out of his reach and water always unattainable Tantalus: The Beginning Tantalus's son, Pelop, was restored back to life
Was the only descendant of Tantalus not marked out by misfortune
Married Princess Hipodamia by beating her father's powerful, god-like horses in a chariot race Pelop Tantalus' daughter
suffered a horrible doomed life
Married to the wonderful mucisian, Amphion
Had seven beautiful girls and seven strong boys
Called upon people of Thebes to worship her in Leto's temple, instead of Leto
Apollo and Artemis heard the arrogance and struck down all her children with a bow and arrow
She was then changed into a stone which was always wet with tears Niobe Pelop's son
Fell in love with his brother, Atreus', wife and succeeded in her false to her marriage with vows
Atreus found out and vowed to get revenge
Atreus killed Thyestes' two children by cutting off their limbs and boiling them and then serving them to Thestes
Atreus became king, but Atreus' children were then cursed Thyestes and Atreus House of Thebes Oedipus resigns after Jocasta's death, and Jocasta's son Creon takes over
Oedipus is exiled, and Antigone, his daughter stays with him
Meanwhile, his youngest son Eteocles takes over Thebes and expels his oldest son, Polyneices, who flees to Argos and vow to capture Thebes for himself
Oedipus dies happily with his two daughters by his side in Colonus, a city outside Athens
Polyneices has raised an army to capture Thebes Antigone One of Polyneice's soldiers was the King of Argos, named Adrastus
Adrastus' brother-in-law Amphiaramus also fought in the battle, even though he knew he was going to die
Amphiaramus does everything his wife tells him to, because she has previously reconciled many of his arguments
She was bribed into sending him into the war by a necklace Polyneices gave to her Side note about Polyneices's Soldiers The Battle for Thebes Prophet named Teiresieas goes to Creon to tell him that his son must be slain if Thebes is to survive
Creon refuses to slay his son and instead sends him away
His son decides to defy his father's wishes and fight in the war anyway-->he has no experience and is immediately killed The fighting is indecisive so a duel between Eteocles and Polyneices is to settle the dispute
The brothers end up killing each other
The full battle resumes and the defenders of Thebes are victorious
Creon reassumes power and says that none of the attackers are allowed to be buried
This would prevent their passage across the river in the underworld; they would wander as ghosts on Earth forever Battle for Thebes Finally Time for Antigone Antigone is is upset because she does not want her brother to remain unburied, so she defies Creon's decree and buries her brother. Ismene, her sister, decides not to help, because she does not want to be killed (death is the punishment for burying an attacker)
Antigone is killed, and nothing further is heard of Ismene or the House of Thebes The mothers and sons of the slain soldiers go to Theseus, the King of Athens, to beg him to reason with Creon and get their sons/fathers buried
Theseus' mom persuades him to do so, but Creon does not heed Theseus plea, so Theseus attacks Thebes and wins
Instead of taking over Thebes, he just takes the dead so they can be buried
The sons of the slain fathers vow to destroy Thebes when they get older
This vow is kept and the young men end up leveling the entire city The Seven Against Thebes AP Question 1977: In this myth, the sons of the soldiers view the experience of their fathers dying to fuel their motivation to raze the city of Thebes How will this myth help me in May? The duel between Eteocles and Polyneices is akin to the battle between Hector and Achilles in The Iliad.
Both battles take place between two opposing soldiers for a city. Both men fall (although in the Iliad, Achilles does not die until later, his mistreatment of Hector's dead body led to his later demise). Connections (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Cadmus, Europa's brother, is told by Apollo to found a city
Cadmus' wife Harmonia (daughter of Ares and Aphrodite) received a necklace made by Hephaestus from Aphrodite
Necklace = divine origin of disaster in later generation
All four daughters had terrible fates
Cadmus and Harmonia fled from Thebes to escape misfortune and were turned into snakes A Family with Many Misfortunes Suffering is not a punishment for wrongdoing
The innocent suffer as often as the guilty
Slaughter-House Five connection: Edgar Derby, who is noble and considerate, and Roland Weary, who is violent and egotistical, both die disgracefully
Fate does not discriminate between good or evil Connections Most innocent yet unfortunate great-great-grandson of Cadmus Oedipus King Laius of Thebes marries distant cousin Jocasta
Oracle predicts that Lauis will die at the hands of his son
Laius abandons infant son in mountains to die
However, Laius is killed by a stranger many years later...who is it? Oracle's word is law
Impossible to change fate
The prophecy will be realized Apollo's Oracle at Delphi Monster terrorizing Thebes
A winged lion with the face of a woman
She only spares those who are capable of answering her riddles The Sphinx Delphic oracle tells Oedipus that he will kill his father
Oedipus' "father" is King Polybus of Corinth
Oedipus leaves Corinth, solves Sphinx's riddle, saves Thebes, and becomes king of Thebes
Thebes is beset by a plague
Apollo declares that the plague will stay unless whoever murdered King Laius is revealed and punished
Teiresias, old blind prophet, tells Oedipus "You are yourself the murderer you seek" Murder, Incest, and Self-Harm Oedipus' Origins Oedipus realizes that he killed his father on his way to Thebes when he finds out that he is the son of King Laius and not King Polybus
Jocasta commits suicide
Oedipus had killed his father, married his mother, and cursed his children for all eternity
Oedipus gouges his own eyes out In Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Harry Potter solves the Sphinx's riddle to win the tournament. Like Oedipus, Harry does not know that by advancing to the next part of the tournament, he nears his own demise. While Oedipus ends up marrying his own mother, Harry ends up in a showdown with Voldemort.
The term "Oedipus complex," named by Sigmund Freud to explain certain childhood neuroses, alludes to the unconscious desires of a child to possess his mother and kill his father
The term "oedipism" is used in medicine for serious self-inflicted eye injury, an extremely rare form of severe self-harm. Connections Applicable A.P. Test Questions: According to critic Northrop Frye, "Tragic heroes are so much the highest points in the human landscape that they seem the inevitable conductors of power about them, great trees more likely to be struck by lightning than a clump of grass. Conductors may of course be instruments as well as the victims of the divine lightning."
Select a novel or play in which a tragic figure functions as an instrument of the suffering of others. Then write an essay in which you explain how the suffering brought upon others by that figure contributes to the tragic vision of the work as a whole. 2003 FRQ Andromache and her husband, the Trojan prophet Helenus, welcomed Aeneas and his men into their home
They entertained the Trojans
Helenus warned them to avoid the nearest coast of Italy (the east coast) because it was full of Greeks.
They can't take the shortest way between Sicily and Italy through the strait because it was guarded by Scylla and Charybdis Iphigenia Among the Taurians Version #1: "The Old Account" Background Information Artemis is the goddess of the wilderness, hunt and wild animals, and fertility.
She was also the twin sister of Apollo.
One version of this story is that Artemis punished Agamemnon for saying that he was a better hunter than Artemis and he must sacrifice Iphigenia to appease Artemis. The Original Version (According to Hamilton) Greek hunters kill one of Artemis's most adored wild animals and to receive forgiveness, they must sacrifice Iphigenia.
The story was changed because the Greeks believed that the "lovely lady of the woodland and the forest" would never make a demand for the death of a young girl. Version #2: The Added Twist Because the Greeks did not agree
with the original version of the story,
they gave it a new ending and a slight twist.
Hamilton starts this account with
Iphigenia telling her mother that she shouldn't
go with Iphigenia to the altar where the sacrifice
was to happen, thus leaving her mother all alone.
A man came to tell Clytemnestra (Iphigenia's mother)
that Iphigenia wasn't sacrificed but what had
happened was unknown to all. Iphigenia was actually,
instead, taken to the land of the
Taurians. There she would become
"priestess of the temple" which just meant
that she would have to conduct the sacrifices
of her countrymen.
Iphigenia did this for many years. The Arrival of Orestes and Pylades Background Information on the Arrival Orestes and his friend were on the land of the Taurians knowingly--they knew what was done to the Greeks that were captured.
He had long felt guilty for murdering his mother and had searched long and hard for help. He was told to go risk his life to be able to be truly healed and at peace.
Why was Pylades with him? Pylades was a faithful friend and would not let Orestes do this alone.
After years of sacrificing, Iphigenia was never able to become comfortable with the thought. She cried in the presence of the two men who were curious for she was quite compassionate.
Orestes in the Same Position Iphigenia was Once In...
About to be dead. Talk about Mycenae comes up
Iphigenia says how "evil, horrible"
the act of the son killing his mother
was, and she asks about the daughter who
was sacrificed. Orestes says that they speak of her
as if she was dead.
Iphigenia asks if Pylades can give a letter and
when she reads it, it is revealed that Orestes is her
They reconnect and the bond between them
is still strong, although he was young
the last time they saw each other. The trio start to escape
but the wind blows the
ship back to the land, where
the king finds out what is going
on and is furious.
Until, that is, Athena tells the king to let the ship go
and Poseidon calms the waters
to give them a safe
journey. Significance and Literary Connections In the old version, the gods are shown to punish for challenges by morals.
In the new version, the gods are shown to help mortals along
Also in the new version, family bonds are shown to be strong.
The literary connection I found was to the Bible story with Joseph and his brothers. He forgives them after they treat him so cruelly and selling him.
Joseph becomes powerful and the brothers come to beg him for food during a drought, and, even though the brothers did some horrible things, they are forgiven. Not only that, but they have a celebration, and strong bonds are formed. This story is parallel to that of Orestes and Iphigenia.