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Scholasticism

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on 29 January 2015

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Transcript of Scholasticism

Scholasticism
The Rise of the Schoolmen and University
Four Characteristics of Scholasticsm
1.
Dialectical Method:
Four step process of investigation, which begins with the question (quaestio), then to the pro arguments (videtur quod), and then to the con arguments (sed contra), then the conclusion (responsio).

2.
The Age of the Great Summa:
Works that sought to harmonize all of thought within a single volume.

3.
Philosophy
(esp. Aristotle) stands as the handmaiden to theology (underlying issue was the relationship between faith and reason).
Organon (Tool) of Aristotle
[six works on logic, including Categories and on Interpretation] is made available in Latin West.

4.
Scholasticism
= Schoolmen. Rise of Universities in the 11th and 12th centuries (University of Paris [1160], University of Bologna [1088])
Gratian
(d. 1159?)
Gratian
was a canon lawyer who composed an influential Summa of Canon Law

Canon Law
: Established the rules for the life of Christians and the inner workings of the Church (i.e. structure and hiearchy). Canon Law was useful for Emperors because it could enforce a universal order on the various conquered communities.

Gratian's Concordant of Discordant Canons
(a.k.a. Decretum): this was the authoritative text on canon (=church) law. Gratian sought to make harmony from the dissonance within the ever growing body of canon law collections.

Gratian's Decretum was authoritaive until the publication of the
Code of Canon Law (Codex Iurias Canonici)
in 1917
Peter Abelard
(Notre Dame de Paris, 1079-1142)
The Challenges of the "Maverick Theologian": (1) Tritheism, (2) Affirmed the subjective instead of the objective nature of Chrit's atonement, (3) Minimized Original Sin, (4) Emphasized subjective nature of act over the objective nature and outcome (5) Love Affair with Heloise.

Theologia Summa Boni (ca. 1115)
- Father, Son and Holy Spirit are relative terms / Wisdom, Power and Goodness are absolute terms for understanding the Triune God

Sic et Non (1122)
- Juxtaposed apparent contradictions within the Church Fathers. Peter worked out the apparent contradictions in the writings of the Church Fathers.
Peter Lombard
(ca. 1100-1160)
Lombard's Sentences
(1150-52): Served as the theological textbook for the High Middle Ages. Used Scriptures and Church Fathers.

Four Books:
(1) Trinity, (2) Creation, (3) Jesus Christ, (4) Sacraments
Lombardian Order of Theology is the Dominant Method of the Medieval Ages

Lombard's Sentenes served as the Textbook of the Medieval Church
Students wrote
Commentaries
on the Sentences as their Master Thesis
The Two Major Scholastic Schools:
Franciscans
(OFM) and
Dominicans
(OP)
Franciscan Leaders: Alexander of Hales, Bonaventura and Duns Scotus, William Ockham

Dominican Leaders: Albert the Great & Thomas Aquinas

These two schools have their origins in their respective founders of these monastic orders:
Francis of Assisi
(1182-1226) and
Dominic of Guzman
(1170-1221)

Duns Scotus (ca. 1265-1308)
& William Ockham (ca. 1285-1347)
1. Emphasis is placed on the
Divine Will
2. Ockham's Distinction between Ordained Power (what God actually does in history) and Absolute Power of God (all the possible things God could have done in history)

Ordained Power:
God chose to atone for the sins of humanity through the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ

Absolute Power:
God could have come Incarnate as a Donkey (Ass) as the means of salvation

3. The emphasis on the Divine Will places God above Creation and the Church (including the sacraments)
Epistemology: Ways of Knowing
Augustine (354-436)
: Divine Illumination (Platonic)
"Faith Seeking Understanding" (Fides Quarrens Intellectum)

Aquinas (1225-74)
: Reflections upon the sensations and the material world (Aristotelian) | Nature and Grace

Ockham

(1284-1347)
: Nominalism: Things only exist in their particulars, NOT as universals

University of Paris, ca. 1160
The Rise of the Professional Student
Francis of Assisi
Dominic of Guzman
Fourfold Interpretation of the Scriptures

Historical (Literal) - Jerusalem is a historical city in Palestine

Moral (Tropological) - Jerusalem is a Holy City where the Lord Inhabits

Eschatological (Anagogical) - Jerusalem is the New City of the Future

Allegorical (Metaphor) - Jerusalem is within the Soul of the Christian
Full transcript