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Voices of

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Rebekah Machen

on 29 May 2016

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Transcript of Voices of

Voices of a Nation
Civil War
African Americans
O Captain! My Captain!

by; Walt Whitman
The poem "O Captain! My Captain!" by Walt Whitman, impacted a lot of people in that time period. After Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, America went into this state of mourning. Walt took this opportunity to capture the bittersweet time where America is celebrating their victory of the Civil War but also grieving for the loss of there beloved president. This poem brought healing to Americans because it honored Abraham Lincoln and the fact that he served his country until his last breath and lead the US to victory.
Detail 3
Items in the 1920's
Abraham Lincoln
In the election of 1860, William Seward and Abraham Lincoln were candidates. Lincoln won by the republican nomination.
Lincoln became a very intelligent military
strategist and a great leader for the country and fought
unofficially in the war of 1812 and the revolutionary war.
Lincoln believed that military should exclude african americans but he reconsidered because of the idea of Fredrick Douglas saying that's they could help the north win the war.
Lincoln took steps to the freedom of african americans and a big step was signing the Emancipation proclamation
Lincoln was shot and killed on April 15, 1865.
The american civil war is often referred as 'the bloodiest war in american history' with loss of lives totaling over 600,000.
though slavery was not the cause of the civil war, it played a huge part of it.
during this, Lincoln became president in 1860 and the confederate states had formed and still had slaves that lead up to the emancipation proclamation.
after the civil war was over in 1865, America reunited, the government became in charge of the states, slavery was effectively ended, and the development of the new America started.
The woman during the civil war played a big role in taking care of family's and finances while the men were fighting at war.
Woman also was also given the responsibility of a lot of work for the army:
1. Cooks
2. Sews uniforms, blankets, sand bags, and makes other supplies for entire regiments.
3. Nursed injured soldiers in makeshift hospitals and cared for them in there homes.
4. They were matrons and laundresses also.
20,000 women worked directly in war efforts and over 400 disguised themselves as men and fought in the war.
The Civil War was not only a very hard time for America but also aloud the country to take big steps to a great future. Technology in weapons like the repeating rifle and the submarine was invented by inventors and military men determined to find ways to win the war. War technology was not the only inventions, the railroad and the telegraph was created. This didn't just change the way people fought in war, it changed the way people lived forever.
Black soldiers fought in the war after the amount of white military men were becoming smaller and smaller each day and the US needed as much help as they can get.
The Emancipation Proclamation declared that African American men of suitable condition will be put into the US armed forces.
16 African American soldiers won the congressional medal of honor for their brave service in the civil war.
O Captain! My Captain!
April 12, 1861- June 2,1865
The victory of the Civil War gave a lot of hope to the people of America. Even though a lot of things didn't go the peoples way such as; woman's suffrage, slavery, and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, America still moved on. This was the start of a new nation and a new future. Rebuilding America was a huge struggle but it created the country that we live in today.
Instant Camera- 1920
The instant camera became one of the largest invention in the 1920's. No one thought it was possible to have a picture in your hand 60 seconds after it was taken, but Edwind Land thought differently. He invented it to be a self developing film to create a chemical print shortly after taking a picture. The Polaroid Corporation pioneered this camera and made what is now known as the Polaroid camera. This invention became very popular at this time period and with this camera, we now have captured memories of the most historical events that we can enjoy today.
Klu klux Klan 1924
The Klu Klux Klan began on December 24, 1865 but became a big problem in the 1920's. It extended in almost every southern state with underground campaigns of intimidation and violence. To symbolize there beliefs, they burned crosses in the public and staged rallies, parades, and marches condemning immigrants, Catholics, jews, blacks, and organized labor. Even though their is no longer slavery and racist laws in America, the KKK is still a problem to this day.
19th Amendment
They passed the 19Th amendment on August 18,1920 and now all women 18 years and older can vote. It was ratified because of the woman's suffrage of the 1920s. The woman became politically active through their work in the abolitionist and temperance movements. With this accomplishment, it lead to African Americans the right to vote that passed the 15Th amendment.
Jazz was born in New Orleans early in the 1920s. While America was stomping their feet to military marches, New Orleans was stomping their feet to the beat of the new type of music in town. This music was created over time and is the roots of African and European musical traditions. It was the mixing of different emotions and essences that birthed this new Jazz era.
Washing Machine
The first electric washing machine was invented by Alva J. Fisher and was issued on August 9,1910. This made a big impact on especially the woman that stayed home and had to hand wash clothes. This new invention made the chore of laundry go from 4 hours to 41 minutes. This item aloud women to move out of their homes and get involved in more productive activities than washing clothes.
Zora Neale Hurston
Zora Neale Hurston was born in 1891 and died in 1960. By the time she died, she had published more books than any black women in America. As a young girl, she lived in an all black city in Florida called Eatonville. Hurston was one out of eight children and her mother died at the age of 11. She believed in equal rights but she seemed to manage avoiding the restraints placed upon women, blacks, and specifically black artists by American society. She was a complex artist whose reputaion ranged from charming and outrageous to fragile and inconsistent, but she always remained a driven and brilliant talent.
No matter how far a person can go the horizon is still way beyond you. - Zora Neale Hurston
Claude Mckay
Claude Mckay was born in Sunnyville, Clarendon Parish, Jamaica on September 15, 1889. He moved to Harlem, New York after publishing his first poet. He died on May 22, 1948 in Chicago, Illinois. Mckay is known for his novels, essays, and poems. He blended his African pride with his love of British poetry. Claude's first books was "Songs of Jamaica" and " Constab Ballads" in 1912 and was published by London's published house. He went through several changes toward the end of his life. He grasped Catholicism, retreated from communism, and officially became an American citizen finally in 1940. Without Claude McKay's passion for writing, we wouldn't know about the dreams and thoughts of the people in that day.
If a man is not faithful to his own individuality, he cannot be loyal to anything. - Claude Mckay
Langston Hughes
Langston Hughes was born Joplin, Missouri on February 1, 1902. Langston was an African American and is best known as a leader of the Harlem Renaissance. He was one of the earliest innovators of the new literary art form called jazz poetry. Hughes was not a normal poet, he claimed to be homosexual which was not as common in that time period as it is today. He initially did not favor black American involvement in the war. Like many writers, he wrote about what people knew; the people, places, and events around him. Hughes was friendly with all classes and races of people. Langston Hughes had a heart attack at the age of 65 and died in New York, New York. He died with a full life and legacy.
It's such a Bore Being always Poor. - Langston Hughes
Civil Rights Movement
Nearly 100 years after the Emancipation Proclamation, African Americans in the southern states still were dealing with unequality of races
Started in 1950 and ended in 1970
In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the “separate but equal” doctrine that formed the basis for state-sanctioned discrimination, drawing national and international attention to African Americans’ plight.
Martin Luther King, Jr., Rosa Parks, Malcolm X, Andrew Goodman and others are known as the main leaders in this movement.
MLK helped expand the rights for African Americans, touched the lives of the minorities because of his victories, and changed the minds of the white people to the changes his leadership brought.
MLK is known for his peaceful protests and speeches which moved the heat of thousands.
MLK was assassinated at 6:01 p.m. on April 4, 1968 as he was on the balcony in front of his room at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, when, without warning, he was shot by a snipers bullet, who was Jamed Earl Ray.
Rosa Parks was known for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person. This spurred on a citywide boycott and helped launch nationwide efforts to end segregation of public facilities.
Rosa died from natural causes on October 24, 2005
Malcolm X had some strong opinions about segregation among blacks, especially after a white man killed his father and forced his mother into a mental hospital.
After embracing the religion of Islam, by the end of his life, Malcolm X is an international figure, welcomed by foreign leaders and committed to Islam as a religion that can alleviate the racial problems of the United States
In April 1964, Andrew Goodman listened to a speech by Allard Lowenstein outlining a bold strategy for bringing civil rights to Mississippi. This made him have a strong and loud opinion in the civil rights movement.
Andrew Goodman was one of three American activists of the Civil Rights Movement murdered near Philadelphia, Mississippi, during Freedom Summer in 1964 by members of the Ku Klux Klan.

The Letter to the Birmingham Jail
Introducing MLK
Martin Luther King Jr. was a Baptist preacher and social activist, who led the Civil Rights Movement in the United States from the mid-1950s until his death by murder in 1968.
He led a huge role in ending the legal segregation of African American citizens in the nation
MLK received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964
He was shot in 1968 and is still remembered and admired as an amazing leader in American history.
Letter from the Birmingham Jail
Martin Luther King was arrested for demonstrating without a permit and taken to Birmingham jail on April 16, 1963. He stayed there 11 days and during the time he was there, he wrote his famous letter " Letter from Birmingham Jail" which is the 2nd most motivational speech from king. He started noticing people weren't leading and being as strong in there beliefs and morals as they should be. The letter defends the strategy of nonviolent resistance to racism. Its says that the people have responsibility's to break unjust laws and take action about the situation and not sit there and let people walk all over them.
My personal favorite quote from the " Letter from Birmingham Jail" : “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly.”
― Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from the Birmingham Jail
Summary of " Letter from Birmingham Jail"
"Letter from Birmingham Jail" is addressed to some clergymen who criticized him and his actions on his protest at Southern Christian Leadership Conference. First, he points out that they said he was an "outsider" who came to Birmingham to just cause trouble. Unemotionally he explains that SCLC based in Atlanta but operates throughout the South. He insists that negotiations cannot happen without protest, which creates a “crisis” and “tension” that forces hesitating parties to argue in good faith. The last thing in his letter, he apologizes for the long letter, but hopes they will understand the forces that have led him to such certainty. He signs the letter, “Yours for the cause of Peace and Brotherhood”

Martin Luther King impacted not only blacks, but so many people in this nation. His most famous speech is " I had a Dream" speech. Right next to that is " The Letter From Birmingham Jail" which was very motivational at that time period and still is today. Even though the letter didn't have a direct affect on his campaign but towards addressing a situation, it caught the eye of many people. It shows that no matter what the situation is, always use love. MLK had plenty of reasons to be angry and emotional in the letter and we see that not once he was defensive or criticizing and always making sure he tells the truth. He was such a great leader and the people learned from this and we still look at Martin Luther King as a huge role model in American History to this day.
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