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Copy of Families of the Periodic Table

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Natosha Daniels

on 29 October 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Families of the Periodic Table

Hydrogen
Alkali Metals
Alkali Earth
Metals
Transition Metals
Lanthanides
Actinides
Boron Family
Carbon Family
Nitrogen Family
Oxygen Family
Halogens
Noble Gases
simplest element
most abundant element
electron configuration similar to IA elements, but different properties
Why is hydrogen placed on the same side as metals, even though it is a nonmetal?
Physical Properties
Gas
colorless
ordorless
tasteless
Lead dense of all gases
90% of atoms in the universe
Chemical Properties
Commercial Sources & Uses
1 proton, 1 electron
1 valence electron
needs only 1 electron to fill energy level
3 isotopes
Never found "free" - but always bonded with:
itself (diatomic)
O = water
metals
Most is found in water
Chemical Properties
continued
Abundant in atmosphere - must be isolated
Produced from:
fuel gases
electrolysis of water
Used by ammonia manufacturers
Space program - rocket fuel
Combined with liquid vegetable oils (hydrogenation)
Families of the Periodic Table
Group IA
Extremely reactive
- never alone in nature!
Physical Properties
Good conductors
Shiny
Low densities
Very soft
Chemical Properties
1 valence electron
tend to lose it easily
Most reactive metal family
React violently with water
Uses
Human body - needs balance of Na & K ions
Manufacturing
Li
Na
K
Rb
Cs
Fr
Extremely reactive - never alone in nature!
Be
Mg
Ca
Sr
Ba
Ra
Group IIA
Group IIIA
Group IVA
Group VA
Group VIA
Group VIIA
Group VIIIA
Physical Properties
Shiny when cut
Denser than alkali metals
Harder
Malleable
widely distrbuted in Earth's crust
Chemical Properties
2 valence electrons
Very reactive
Eager to lose electrons
Uses
Be - x-rays
Mg
Alloys for airplanes, cars, boats
Milk of Magnesia
Flares, fireworks
Ca – Diet, Building materials
Sr – Fireworks (red)
Ba – Fireworks, rat poison, x-rays
Ra – cancer treatment
Most of the metals used "as metal
Iron
Copper
Silver
Gold
Nickle
Etc
Physical Properties
Hard
Shiny
Good Conductors
Malleable/ductile
Usually solid
Chemical Properties
Many different chemical properties - don't really follow patterns
Uses
Trusses, I-beams
Artificial hip joints
Coins
Jewelry
Industrial processes
Make colorful compounds
Human body
Iron - carrying O in blood
Chromium, cobalt, copper, manganese
Groups I- VII B
Can be:
unreactive - gold, silver, platinum
Reactive - copper, iron
The Periodic Table
Once called rare earth metals
No longer rare
Physical Properties
Paramagnetic
Shiny
Good Conductors
Malleable
Soft
Uses
Chemical Properties
Catalysts in chemical reaction
glass & TV industries
Street lights
Coloring ceramics and glass
Nuclear reactor control rods
Inner Transition Metals
oxidize rapidly in moist air
dissolve quickly in acids
reaction with oxygen is slow at room temperature, but they can ignite around 150-200 °C
react with halogens upon heating
upon heating, react with S, H, C and N
Only 1st 4 are natural
Atomic #s higher than uranium (92) = transuranium
Physical Properties
Shiny
Good Conductors
Malleable
Soft
Very dense
Uses
Fission reactions (uranium, plutonium)
Cancer therapy
10-year power source for pacemakers (plutonium)
Chemical Properties
All of these elements are Radioactive!!!!
If ingested, will remain in the body indefinitely
The metals tarnish readily in air.
They react with boiling water or dilute acid to release hydrogen gas.
Man-Made
Tend to be unstable
B
Al
Ga
In
Tl
Physical Properties
Carbon has many forms - each has unique properties
Chemical Properties
Uses
C
Si
Ge
Sn
Pb
Diamond
Hardest substance known
High melting point
Non-conductive
Graphite
Soft, slippery
Conducts
Other elements have properties common to metals and metalloids
4 valence electrons
Gain, lose, or share 4 electrons

Carbon
In diamonds, graphite – unreactive

Silicon does not react with water, air, or acids and low temperatures
Graphite – made into pencil lead.
Diamonds
Jewelry
Polishing and grinding
Rotary dentistry tools
Graphite
Manufacturing paints
Charcoal
Water and air filters
Deodorant shoe inserts
Silicon/Germanium
Microchips
Tin (Sn)
Canned foods
Combined with copper to make bronze - statues
Lead (Pb)
Car batteries
Weights for balancing tires
bullets
C = non-metal
Si, Ge = metalloid
Sn, Pb = metal
N
P
As
Sb
Bi
Physical Properties
N, P = non-metal
As, Sb = metalloid
Bi = metal
N
Usually diatomic (N2)
Gas
No taste, color, odor
78% of earth’s atmosphere
P
Exists in 4 forms
All solid
Different colors (white/yellow, red, black/violet)
Gain or share 3 electrons

Nitrogen (N)
Doesn’t usually react

Phosphorus (P)
Very reactive – not found pure in nature
Chemical Properties
Nitrogen
Air, soil, fertilizers (all plants need it)
Nitrous oxide (laughing gas)
Smog
Medicine
Phosphorus
Match heads
Arsenic
Poison
Preserving animal skins
Glass manufacturing
Uses
O
S
Se
Te
Po
Oxygen (O)
Gas
Colorless, odorless, tasteless
Most abundant element in earth’s crust
Liquifies at -183 to -218 C; solidifies at -218 oC
Two forms in the atmosphere
O3 (ozone)
O2
Physical Properties
Sulfur
Variety of forms
Yellow solid – room temp
Melts at 113 C
O, S, Se = non-metal
Te = metaloid
Po = metal
Gain or share 2 electrons
Oxygen – one of the most reactive elements
Forms oxides with elements from every group except Group VIIIA
Strong electronegativity
Sulfur
Reactive at room temp
Forms sulfides with some metals
Also reacts with nonmetals
Chemical Properties
Portable oxygen tank
Oxygen (O)
Air (atmosphere - about 21%)
Ozone can kill, also can kill bacteria
Sulfur (S)
Makes rubber strong and pliable
Bleaching/disinfectant
Industrial uses
Sulfuric acid
Acid rain
Tellurium (Te)
Glass tinting
Antiknock compound in gasoline
Polonium
Thermoelectric power source in space shuttles
Uses
the salt-formers
F
Cl
Br
I
At
F has largest electronegativity
F one of last elements to be discovered
Br – only nonmetal liquid at room temp
At – very radioactive, names means unstable
As atomic # increases
Densities, melting points, and boiling points increase
Colors get darker
Physical Properties
F, Cl, I = gases, nonmetal
Br = liquid, nonmetal
At = solid metalloid
Gain or share 1 electrons in a reaction
Very reactive – the most reactive nonmetal family
Exist as diatomic when pure, form acids with H
F reacts violently with H containing compounds
Uncombined elements are dangerous to humans
Form salts when reacting with metals
Chemical Properties
Uses
                                 

Reacts with almost every known substance
Used to prevent tooth decay
Kills algae/bacteria in drinking water and swimming pools
Fluorine
Chlorine
Table salt
Used to kill bacteria in water
Bleach wood pulp in paper production
Iodine
Need in thyroid gland
Disinfectant (used with alcohol)
Bromine
Photographic compounds
Natural gas and oil production
He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
Gases
Colorless
Odorless
Tasteless
Extremely low boiling/freezing points
Atoms have little attraction for each other
Physical Properties
Helium (He)
Used in balloons
Diluted into oxygen in deep-sea diving
second most common element in universe
Very common in stars, rare on earth
Liquid Ne used as refrigerant
Xe – lighting devices (high speed photographic tubes)
Colored Lights
Uses
Used in flashbulbs
and “exotic” light bulbs
Xenon (Xe)
Krypton (Kr)
Argon (Ar)
Neon (Ne)
Elements
Tend to be separate from other elements
Do not ordinarily form compounds
Do not usually lose, gain, or share electrons.
Can be forced to react
Xe, Rn, Kr
Chemical Properties

The most abundant element in the earth’s crust is oxygen.
Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe.
Elements are organized on the table according to their atomic number
(APE MAN)
The atomic number is unique to that element. No two elements have the same atomic number.
Periods
Each row is called a
PERIOD
The elements in each period have the same number of
ENERGY LEVELS/shells
Example: 1st period =
1 shell
2nd period =
2 shells
Groups/Families

Each column is called a
Group or Family.

Each element in a group has the same number of
electrons
in their
outer shell
and


The electrons in the
Outermost
shell are called
valence electrons.
How many valence electrons are in Oxygen? Which group does oxygen belong to?
How many valence electrons are in Hydrogen?
Which group does Hydrogen belong to?
Reactivity is greater as you move down the group.
Name the element_____________
Number of shells_______________
Valence electrons _______________
Name the element_____________
Number of shells_______________
Valence electrons _______________
These are the electrons that are transferred or shared when atoms bond together.
ionic bond
covalent bond
have similar properties!!!!
octet rule: atoms will combine to have
8 valence electrons
Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity.
Metals are shiny.
Metals are ductile (can be stretched into thin wires).
Metals are malleable (can be pounded into thin sheets).
A chemical property of metal is its reaction with water which results in corrosion.

Non-metals are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
Non-metals are not ductile or malleable.
Solid non-metals are brittle and break easily.
They are dull.
Many non-metals are gases.

Metalloids (metal-like) have properties of both metals and non-metals.
They are solids that can be shiny or dull.
They conduct heat and electricity better than non-metals but not as well as metals.
They are ductile and malleable.

The Boron Family is named after the first element in the family.
Atoms in this family have 3 valence electrons.
This family includes a metalloid (boron), and the rest are metals.
This family includes the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust (aluminum).
Full transcript