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Chapter 7-2 Cell Structure

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Tina Gradel

on 27 October 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 7-2 Cell Structure

Cell Organization
Chapter 7-2 Cell Structure
** The cell's DNA ( Genetic Blueprint )

---The coded instructions for making
proteins and
other important
The Nucleus contains:
Two Types of Cells
Besides the Nucleus, many cellular
structures act as if they are specialized organs---known as organelles, meaning “little organs.”
The specialized machines and assembly lines of a factory can be compared to the different organelles
of the cell.

Cells, like factories, follow instructions and
produce products.

Organelles of the Cell
The main office controls a factory;
the Nucleus controls the cell
"The Control Center"
Vacuoles & Vesicles
"Storage Container"
Organelles That Build Proteins
Key Question:

What is the role of the Nucleus
of the Cell?
~~contain Nucleus and Cytoplasm~~

Cytoplasm......is the fluid portion of the cell outside the nucleus
Animal Cell
Protists ~ Fungi ~ Plants ~ Animals

Archaebacteria ~ Bacteria
Prokaryotic Cells
~~Contain cytoplasm,

Prokaryotic Cells
---no nucleus
Eukaryotic Cells
---have a nucleus
Contains: DNA & coded instructions for making proteins & other important molecules
Nuclear Membrane
a.k.a Nuclear Envelope
Surrounds the Nucleus
**dotted with thousands of nuclear pores

**allows proteins, RNA & other molecules
to move into and out of the nucleus to the
rest of the cell

**DNA-----NEVER leaves the nucleus
contain the genetic information
that is passed from one generation of cells to
the next.
Chromosomes & Chromatin
Eukaryotic Cells
MOST of the time, the
threadlike chromosomes
are spread throughout the
nucleus in the form of
—a complex
of DNA bound to proteins.
When a cell divides, its chromosomes condense and can be seen under a microscope
**small, dense region inside of the nucleus

**where the assembly of ribosomes begins

**Large, saclike, membrane-enclosed structures

**Stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.

**Larger vacuole in plants to store water & help with the
structure of the plant

**Nearly all eukaryotic cells contain smaller membrane-enclosed
structures called
---used to store and move materials between cell
organelles, as well as to and from the cell surface.

That Store, Clean Up,
and Support
**Small organelles filled with enzymes

**Perform the vital function of removing the “junk”
from the cell

**Breaks down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into
small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell.

**breaks down organelles that have outlived their


"Garbage Men"

"The Tendons"
"The Bones"
**Threadlike structures

**Helps to transport materials between different
parts of the cell

**Produce a tough, flexible framework that supports
the cell.

**Also helps the cell to move, such as Amoebas

"Skeleton of the Cell"
Eukaryotic cells are given their shape and internal
organization by a network of protein filaments
Microfilaments and microtubules are two of the principal protein filaments that make up the cytoskeleton.
**Are hollow structures

**Plays crucial role in maintaining the cell's shape

**Important in cell division, for they form spindle
fibers, which helps to separate chromosomes

**Also build projections from the cell surface,
which are known as cilia and flagella, that
enable cells to swim rapidly through liquids

Because proteins carry out so many of the essential functions of living things, a big part of the cell is devoted to their production and distribution
"The Kitchen Table"
**small particles of RNA and protein

**Located throughout cytoplasm and on the Rough
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

**Proteins are assembled on the Ribosomes

**Directions come from DNA
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
"Bumpy Highway"
**proteins and other materials are exported from
the cell

**Proteins are assembled here and moved.....
--some go to the cell membrane
--some go to specialized locations in cells
Smooth Endoplastmic Retiuculm
"Smooth Highway"
**NO Ribosomes are located here

**contains collections of enzymes that
perform specialized tasks

**synthesis of membrane lipids and the
detoxification of drugs.

Golgi Apparatus
"The Post Office
**modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell or release outside the cell

**finishing touches are put on proteins
before they are ready to leave

**Vesicles are used to move these finished
proteins within and out of the cell
Organelles That Capture & Release Energy
**Most cells are powered by food molecules
that are built using energy from the sun

**Chloroplasts and mitochondria are both
involved in energy conversion processes
within the cell
"The Solar Panels"
**Found in plants ONLY

**captures the energy from sunlight and
converts it into food that contains chemical
energy in a process called photosynthesis

**Large stacks of Thylakoid Membranes inside
---hold the green pigment---Chlorophyll
"The Power Plants"
**Found in both Plants & Animal cells

**converts the chemical energy stored in food into
compounds that are more convenient for the
cell to use.

**ALL or NEARLY ALL of our mitochondria come
from the cytoplasm of the ovum, or egg cell. You get
your mitochondria from Mom!

Like a factory that needs walls & a roof to protect it from the environment outside, cells have a boundary as well

Cell Wall
"The Walls"
**ALL Plants & most prokaryotes, produce a
strong supporting layer around the cell

**Provides support & protections

**Cell walls lie outside the cell membrane

**Porous enough to allow water, oxygen,
carbon dioxide, and certain other substances
to pass through easily.

Cell Membrane
"Security Guard"
**regulates what enters and leaves the cell
and also protects and supports the cell.

**selectively permeable, meaning that some substances can pass across them and others cannot

**Made of a double-layered sheet called a LIPID BILAYER which gives cell membranes a flexible structure and
forms a strong barrier between the cell and its surroundings

**The fatty acid portions of such a lipid are hydrophobic, or “water-hating,” while the opposite end of the molecule is hydrophilic, or “water-loving

**proteins form channels and pumps that help to move material across the cell membrane.
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