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Rise of Communism WHAP
Transcript of Rise of Communism WHAP
Communism from Karl Marx
most European socialists believed that democracy could achieve their goals.
“communists” in advocated revolution
At communism’s height in the 1970s, almost one-third of the world’s population was governed by communist regimes.
USSR and China most important... obvi.
communism went a lot of other places like.... Eastern Europe, Mongolia, North Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Cuba, and Afghanistan
The various expressions of communism shared common ground.
a common ideology, based on Marxism
inspiration of the 1917 Russian Revolution
Global Warsaw Pact created a military alliance of Eastern European states and the USSR
Council on Mutual Economic Assistance tied Eastern European economies to the USSR’s economy
Treaty of Friendship between the USSR and China (1950)
But relations between communist countries were also marked by rivalry and hostility
CUSTOMIZE THE LAYOUT AND ADD YOUR OWN CONTENT
Rise of Communism
Both Communist revolutions drew on the mystique of the French Revolution.
Quick recap on Rev and Civil War
Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate the throne in February 1917
Provisional Government refused to withdraw from WWI
left opening for the Bolsheviks, led by Lenin --> Bolshevik Rev in October 1917. --> Civil War, but Communists won by 1921.
25 years, the new USSR was the only communist country
Stalin sought a buffer of “friendly” governments in Eastern Europe; imposed communism from outside
local communist parties had some domestic support
Communism won in China in 1949, after a long struggle
the Chinese imperial system had collapsed in 1911
the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was not founded until 1921 and grew under Mao Zedong's leadership.
Opposing Nationalist Party, the Guomindang, which ruled China after 1928 with leader Chiang Kai-shek and promoted modern development in cities.
The CCP was driven from the cities, developed a new strategy
gradually got the peasants for support, not city workers
recruited women by outlawing arranged marriages, made divorce easier, and let women vote and won property. Basic = rights.
gained reputation for resisting Japanese occupation and honesty, unlike the Guomindang
Joseph Stalin built a socialist society in the USSR in the 1920s and 1930s; Mao Zedong did the same in China in the 1950s and 1960s.
1. first step: modernization and industrialization
2. serious attack on class and gender inequalities
3. both created political systems dominated by the Communist Party
all other parties were forbidden and the state controlled almost the entire economy.
China’s conversion to communism was easier than the USSR
Partially b/c the USSR had already paved the way
Also, Chinese communists won the support of the rural masses
the USSR almost immediately declared full legal and political equality for women
1919: USSR’s Communist Party set up Zhenotdel (Women’s Department)
Stalin abolished it in 1930
communist China also worked for women’s equality
Marriage Law of 1950 ordered free choice in marriage, easier divorce, the end of concubinage and child marriage, and equal property rights for women
women became much more active in the workforce
Limitations on communist women’s liberation
women retained burden of housework and child care as well as paid employment
few women made it into top political leadership
in both states, the communists took landed estates and redistributed the land to peasants
Russia: peasants took and redistributed the land themselves
China: land reform teams mobilized poor peasants to confront landlords and wealthier peasants
in China, collectivization was largely peaceful (1950s)
in the USSR, collectivization was imposed by violence (1928–1933)
China’s collectivization went further than the USSR’s
Both states regarded industrialization as fundamental
need to end humiliating backwardness and poverty
desire to create military strength to survive in a hostile world
China largely followed the model established by the USSR
state ownership of property
centralized planning (five-year plans)
intrusive party control of the whole process
the USSR leadership largely accepted the social outcomes of industrialization China under Mao Zedong tried to combat the social effects of industrialization
the Great Leap Forward (1958–1960) promoted small-scale industrialization in rural areas
the Cultural Revolution (mid-1960s) which also rejected feminism for a strikingly masculine gender neutral model.
Paranoia was REAL for the USSR and China.
Nuclear Standoff and Third World Rivalry 1. the USSR succeeded in creating a nuclear weapon in 1949
massive arms race: by 1989, the world had nearly 60,000 nuclear warheads.
avoidance of any direct military confrontation, since it might turn into a nuclear war
Both the United States and the USSR courted third world countries
United States intervened in Iran, the Philippines, Guatemala, El Salvador, Chile, the Congo, and elsewhere because of fear of communist penetration
Communist fear of a vast conspiracy by class enemies and foreign imperialists to restore capitalism
USSR: the Terror (Great Purges) of the late 1930s
enveloped millions of Russians, including tens of thousands of prominent communists
many were sentenced to harsh labor camps (the gulag) or ya know, executed.
China: the search for enemies was a more public process
the Cultural Revolution (1966–1969) escaped control of communist leadership
Both the Terror and the Cultural Revolution discredited socialism and contributed to eventual collapse of communist experiment